Glossary of Logistics Terms


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #

This glossary defines various distribution, freight, logistics and transportation  terms.

Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary. If the term you are looking for starts with a digit or symbol, choose the '#' link.

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- A -   

"A" End of Car: The end opposite to the "B" end. See "B" End of Car.

Ab initio: From the beginning.

Abandon: A proceeding wherein a rail or motor carrier seeks authority to abandon all or parts of its line.

ABI-Automated Broker Interface:  A system available to brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating the prompt release of imported cargo.

Absorption: The assumption by one carrier of switching or other special charges of another generally without increasing the rate to the shipper.

Abstract: An abridgement of evidence omitting unessentials.

Acceptance Supra Protest: An agreement to pay a bill of exchange after it has been protested, to save the credit and honor of the drawer or endorser.

Acceptance:  A time draft (or bill of exchange), which the drawee has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity.  Drawee's act in receiving a draft and thus entering into the obligation to pay its value at maturity.  Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms.

Acceptance: Receipt by the consignee of a shipment thus terminating the common carrier liability.

Accessorial Service:  A service rendered by a carrier in addition to a transportation service, such as sorting, packing, pre-­cooling, heating, storage, substitution of tonnage, etc.

Act of God: An irresistible superhuman cause, such as no reasonable human foresight, prudence, diligence and care can anticipate and/or prevent.

Act to Regulate Commerce: An act of Congress regulating the practices, rates and rules of transportation lines engaged in handling interstate traffic (now known as the Interstate Commerce Act).

Activity Based Costing (ABC):  Traces overhead and direct costs specific to products, customers and services.

Ad Hoc Charter:  A one-off charter operated at the whim of an airline or charterer.

Ad Valorem:  Latin for "according to the value."  An ad valorem duty is an import duty based on the value of an article as defined in the customs law of a particular country, rather than on weight or volume. A percentage of that value is charged, for example, 5% ad valorem. A freight rate set at a certain percentage of the value of an article is known as an ad valorem rate.

Administrative Procedure Act: An act of Congress establishing" procedures before Federal Agencies.

Admirality: Jurisdiction over causes of action occurring in connection with contracts to transport by water, also other marine matters.

Admiralty Court:  A court having jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.

Adoption Notice: A notice required to be filed with the I.C.C. by a carrier or person, taking over operating control of another carrier.

Advance Against Documents:  A loan made on the security of the documents covering a shipment.

Advanced Charge: The amount of freight or other charge on a shipment advanced by one transportation line to another, or to the shipper, to be collected from the consignee.

Advantage: See "Inherent Advantages."

Advising Bank:  A bank operating in the exporter's country that handles letters of credit for a foreign bank by notifying the exporter that the credit has been opened in his favor.

Advisory Capacity:  A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the party represented.

Affiant: One who makes an affidavit.

Affidavit: A written statement sworn to before a Notary Public.

Affiliate:  A company that controls, or is controlled by another company, or is one of two or more commonly controlled companies.

Affreightment, Contract of:  An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer who then becomes liable for payment even though he is later unable to make the shipment.

Affreightment: The act of hiring or contracting, by which a vessel or space is engaged for the transportation of freight.

Agency Agreement: An agreement whereby the steamship line appoints the steamship agent and defines the specific duties and areas of responsibility of that agent.

Agency Tariff: A tariff issued by a publishing agent for one or more transportation lines.

Agent: A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another.

Aggregate of Intermediates: A clause in Section 4 of Part I of the I.C. Act prohibiting through rate higher than the sum of the intermediate rates.

Aggregated Shipments: Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.

Agreed Valuation: The value of a shipment agreed upon in order to secure a specific rating and/or liability.

Agreed Weight: The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in certain manner.

Air Cargo Agent:  A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo and acts for airlines that pays him a fee (usually 5%). He is registered with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). (See also Air Freight Forwarder and Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder)

Air Freight Forwarder:  A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. He usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He issues his own air waybills to the exporter and has the status of in indirect air carrier. (See also Air Cargo Agent and Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, and Foreign Freight Forwarder).

Air Waybill:  A non-negotiable contract for carriage of air transportation between an air carrier and a shipper, or an air carrier and an airfreight forwarder. In the latter case the forwarder, as an indirect air carrier, issues his own house air waybill to the shipper.

AITA:  The French and German acronym for the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

Aliunde: From another Course.

All Commodity Rate: A freight rate applying, with certain restrictions, on any and all commodities.

All Rail: Entirely by rail transportation.

All Water: Entirely by water transportation.

Allocate: To distribute, assign or allot.

Allowance: (a) A sum granted as a reimbursement or repayment; and (b) A deduction from the gross weight or value of goods.

All-Risk Insurance:  The broadest form of coverage available, providing protection against all risk of physical loss or damage from any external cause. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, per-shipment conditions, inadequate packaging, or loss of market. Loss must be fortuitous to be covered.

Alongside:  The side of the ship. Goods to be delivered alongside are to be placed on the dock or lighter within reach of the ship's tackle from which they can be loaded aboard the ship.

Alternative Rates: Two or more rates of which the one which produces the lowest charge is applicable.

Alternative Tariff: A tariff containing two or more rates from and to the same points, on the same goods, with authority to use the one that produces the lowest charge. (See Sectional Tariff.)

Ambiguous: Susceptible of several interpretations.

Amendment: An alteration, change or correction.

Analogous Articles: Articles having similar characteristics.

Annual Reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission: Yearly reports of the Commission summarizing its during the year and recommendations for legislative changes affecting commerce.

Ante: Before.

Anti: Against.

Anti-Trust Exemption:  The immunity from prosecution under the Sherman Act, granted to steamship companies in 1916, in recognition of the special services and value American Flag merchant vessels provide in the defense of the country in time of war.

Any Quantity Rate: A rate applicable to an article in any quantity.

Appraiser: One who determines the value of goods.

Arbitrary: (a) A fixed amount which a transportation line agrees to accept in dividing joint rates; (b) A fixed amount added to or deducted from one station to make a rate from another station; and (c) A fixed amount added to or deducted from a rate to one station to make a rate to another station.

Arbitration Clause:  A standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.

Arrival Notice: A notice, furnished to consignee, of the arrival of freight.

ASEAN:  Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Asset Based Logistics Supplier:  Logistics provider with inherent assets, such as trucking fleet and warehouse capacity, that can be used to move freight or to store inventory.

Assign: To transfer or make over to another party.

Assigned Siding: A sidetrack owned by transportation line and assigned for the use of one or more firms or individuals in loading or unloading cars.

Assignee: One to whom a right or property is transferred.

Assignor: One by whom a right or property is transferred.

Astray Freight Waybill: A waybill used for astray freight. (See Free‑astray.)

Astray Freight: Freight bearing marks indicating owner and destination, but separated from the waybill. (See Excess and Over Freight.)

AT (American Terms):  A marine insurance term used to differentiate between the conditions of American policies and those of other nations, principally England.

Automated Broker Interface:  A system available to brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating the prompt release of imported cargo.

Automated Commercial System (ACS):  The electronic system of the U.S. Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry sectors, that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.

Automated Manifest System (AMS):  The electronic system allowing a manifest inventory to be transmitted to the U.S. Customs Service data center by carrier, port authority, or service center computers.

Automobile Car: A car equipped with facilities for safe and proper handling of automobiles.

Average Demurrage Agreement: An agreement made between a shipper and a transportation line whereby the shipper is debited for the time cars are held for loading or unloading beyond a certain period and credited for the time cars are released by him within a certain period, demurrage charges being assessed by the transportation line, usually at the end of the month, for any outstanding debits.

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- B -

"B" End of Car:  The end on which the hand brake is located.

BAA:  British Airports Authority.

BACA:  Baltic Air Charter Association.

B/B (Breakbulk):  (See Breakbulk Cargo)  

B/L (Bill of Lading):  (See Bill of Lading)

B/S (Bunker Surcharge):  (See BAF)

B/s:  Bags; bales.  

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor):  An adjustment in shipping charges to offset price fluctuations in the cost of bunker fuel. Also known as a Bunker Surcharge (B/S).  

BENELUX:  An economic union among Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

b.t.:  Berth terms.  

Back Haul: To haul a shipment back over part of a route which it has traveled.

Backhaul Opportunities: For a shipper, it is the part of the round trip movement from the consignee back to the shipper.  For a carrier, any shipment which will get his vehicle back to an area near his source of steady, usually higher paying, "outbound" shipments. Usually a back haul pays less per mile to the carrier than his "head haul" freight. 

Bailment:  (b) A transfer of possession without transfer of title. 

Bailment: A delivery of goods by one party to another, to be held according to the purpose of the delivery and to be returned or delivered when that purpose is accomplished.

Bankruptcy Act: An Act to accord relief to railroads and effect their reorganization approved March 3, 1933. 

Bar Code: A configuration of hightech printed bars affixed to a package to track the movement of a product throughout the supply chain.

Barge: A flat bottomed boat used chiefly in inland waterways.

Barratry: The action of officers or crews of a ship in willfully destroying or injuring a ship or its cargo.

Barter:  The direct exchange of goods and/or services without the use of money as a medium of exchange and without third party involvement.  

Basing Points: A point the rates to and from which are used in constructing through rates between other points. 

Basing Rate: A rate used only for the purpose of constructing other rates.  (See Proportional Rate.) 

Belly Cargo:  Freight accommodation below the main deck.  

Belt Line: A short railroad operating within and/or around a city. 

Bermuda Agreement:  An agreement concluded in 1946 between the U.K. and the U.S.A. designed to regulate future international air traffic. Most governments accept its principles and follow it by limiting traffic rights on international routes to one or two carriers.

Berth Liner Service:  A regularly scheduled steamship line with regularly published schedules (ports of call) from and to defined trade areas.

Berth or Liner Terms:  An expression covering assessment of ocean freight rates generally implying that loading and discharging expenses will be for the ship owner's account, and usually applying from the end of the ship's tackle in the port of loading to the end of the ship's tackle in the port of discharge.

Berth:  The place beside a pier, quay, or wharf where a vessel can be loaded or discharged.

Bilateral Rights:  Agreements on traffic rights concluded between two governments. 

Bill of Lading:  A document issued by a common carrier to a shipper that serves as: 

  1. A receipt for the goods delivered to the carrier for shipment.
  2. A definition of the contract of carriage of the goods from the port of shipment to the port of destination listed in the bill of lading.
  3. Evidence of title to the relative goods.

When in order form, a bill of lading is negotiable. (See specific types of Bill of Ladings below).

Bill of Lading-Straight Bill of Lading: A non‑negotiable document by which a transportation line acknowledges receipt of freight and contracts for its movement.  Upon delivery of the freight, the surrender of the original Straight Bill of Lading is not required by transportation lines, except when necessary for the purpose of identifying the consignee. 

Bill of Lading, Claused:  A bill of lading, which has exemptions to the receipt of merchandise in "apparent good order" noted.  

Bill of Lading, Clean:

  1. A bill of lading that bears no superimposed clause or notation that expressly declares a defective condition of the goods and/or the packaging (Article 18, Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits). A bill of lading that contains a clause declaring defective goods is called a Foul Bill of Lading.  
  1. A bill of lading that is silent as to the place of storage, indicating that the goods have been stowed under deck. (See Bill of Lading, Unclean).

Bill of Lading, Forwarder's:  A bill of lading issued by a forwarder to a shipper as a receipt for merchandise that the forwarder will consolidate with cargo obtained from other exporters and ship to his agent at the port of destination. In most cases, the Forwarder's Bill of Lading has legal standing for banking purposes. Also called House Bill of Lading. 

Bill of Lading, Foul:  A receipt for goods issued by a carrier bearing a notation that the outward containers or the goods have been damaged.

Bill of Lading, Inland:  A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier.

Bill of Lading, Ocean:  A document defining the terms and conditions of carriage for transport of cargo by sea freight.

Bill of Lading, On Board:  A bill of lading acknowledging that the relative goods have been received on board for shipment on a specified vessel.

Bill of Lading, Order:  A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types: 

  1. A bill drawn to the order of a foreign consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party.
  2. A bill drawn to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him either "in blank" or to a named consignee. The purpose of the latter bill is to protect the shipper against the buyer's obtaining the merchandise before he has paid or accepted the relative draft. (See also Endorsement in Blank.)

Bill of Lading, Received for Shipment:  A bill of lading acknowledging the receipt of goods by a carrier for shipment on a specified vessel. This type of bill of lading is not acceptable under a letter of credit unless it is specially authorized. English law does not regard these bills as a valid tender under CIF contracts because the CIF seller is obligated to ship the goods, and a Received for Shipment Bill of Lading is not considered proof of shipment.

Bill of Lading, Straight:  A non-negotiable bill of lading whereby the consignee named in the bill is the owner of the relative goods.

Bill of Lading, Through Railway Export:  A bill of lading showing the place of receipt by the carrier at an inland point, with transport to the port of exit accomplished using rail/intermodal connections.

Bill of Lading, Through:  A bill of lading that covers transportation by more than one carrier from the point of issue to the final destination (e.g., a bill from New York, via Curaçao, to Pampatar, Venezuela).

Bill of Lading, Unclean:  A bill containing reservations as to the good order and condition of the goods or the packaging or both. Examples:  "bags torn," "drums leaking,'' "one case damaged," and "rolls chafed."

Bill of Sale: A contract for the sale of goods.

Bill of Sight:  A written description of goods given by an importer to a customs officer in the event shipping documents have not arrived in time and the importer wishes to avoid delayed entry charges. When an importer enters goods on a bill of sight, he usually must make a cash deposit covering the estimated amount of duty. When the shipping documents are received and a correct entry is made, the exact amount of duty is levied.

Billed Weight: The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill. 

Billing and Instruction Book: (See Guide Book.) 

Bills of Lading Act: An act of Congress relating to the preparation and negotiability of bills of lading. 

Blanket Bond: A bond covering a group of persons, articles or properties. 

Blanket Rate: (a) A rate applicable from and/or to a group of points; and (b) A special rate applicable on several different articles in a single shipment. 

Blanket Tariff Supplement: A single publication containing additions to or changes in two or more tariffs. 

Blanket Waybill: A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight. 

Blocking or Bracing: Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place in or on cars. 

Bloodstock:  Pedigreed livestock. Often race horses or cattle for breeding.  

Bona Fide: In good faith. 

Bond of Indemnity: An agreement made with a transportation line relieving it from liability for any action on its part for which it would otherwise be liable.

Bonded Warehouse:  A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.

Bonded Warehouse: A warehouse owned by persons approved by the Treasury Department, and under bond or guarantee for the strict observance of the revenue laws; utilized for storing goods until duties are paid or goods arc otherwise properly released.

Booking:  Arrangements with steamship companies for the acceptance and carriage of freight.

Booking: The act of recording arrangements for the movement of goods by vessels.

Box Car: A closed car used for hauling freight.

Breakbulk: To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a conveyance. The process of breaking a bulk load into smaller units of shipment.

Break Bulk Boat: A term applied to a boat or lighter to denote that freight delivered to it by rail carriers must be first unloaded from the cars (not a car ferry or car float.)

Break Bulk Point: A point at which a portion or all of the contents of a car are unloaded and distributed.

Break Bulk: To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a car.

Breakbulk Cargo:  Cargo that is shipped as a unit (e.g., palletized cargo, boxed cargo, large machinery, trucks, and pre-slung cargo).

Breakbulk Vessel:  A vessel designed to handle palletized, pre-slung, boxed, and unitized cargo. Holds can be at the open bay or between deck type. Between deck means the hold can be converted from multi levels to open bay. This type of vessel is usually self-sustaining.

Breakpoint:  The weight at which freight charges change, e.g., 100 kilos.

Bridge Toll: A charge made for transporting traffic over a bridge.

Brief: A written abstract of testimony and pleadings in a case and commentaries thereon.

Broker:  A person or firm that establishes a connection between a buyer and a seller. Brokers operate in many fields:  insurance, steamship transport, securities, drafts, and other phases of foreign trade. Not only do brokers bring buyers and sellers together, but they help to negotiate and close contracts and agreements between them.

Brokerage: The selling, providing, furnishing, contracting or arranging for transportation by a third party (i.e., a party neither owning the freight nor owning the equipment used to transport it, but who provides the service to the other party for a fee).

Brokerage License: Authority granted by Interstate Commerce Commission to persons to engage in the business of arranging for transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.

Brussels Nomenclature-Kennedy Round:  A standardized system, established in 1950, for classifying commodities for customs purposes. The ECU common external tariff and the tariffs of other major trading nations, except the U.S.A., are based on this nomenclature. The U.S. tariff schedule (TSUS) contains about 5,000 items compared to 2,800 in the Brussels Nomenclature.

Bulk Cargo:  Loose cargo that is loaded directly into a ship's hold.

Bulk Carrier:  There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier and the liquid-bulk carrier, better known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.

Bulk Freight: Freight not in packages or containers.

Bulk Solids:  Dry cargo shipped in containers, loose and in bulk, without counting or marking.

Bulkhead: (a) A partition separating one part of a ship between decks from another part; and (b) A structure to resist the pressure of earth or water.

Bunching: The accumulation and tender of cars for loading or unloading in excess of orders or contrary to customary schedules.

Bunker Charge: A charge for loading into the bunkers of a vessel coal used by the vessel (does not include the cost of coal).

Burden of Proof: Proving disputed facts that are at issue in a proceeding; viz.‑the Interstate Commerce Act provides that the burden of proof is upon the carriers to show that changes in rates, rules, etc., are reasonable.

Bureau of Standards:  A bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce that maintains research and testing laboratories, working standards, weights, measurements, and norms by which business and government are guided. The Bureau of Standards furnishes development and consulting services to the government and helps business to establish quality standards in all industries other than food and drugs.

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- C -

CAA (Civil Aviation Authority):  The government body responsible for regulating U.K. airlines.  

CAD (Cash Against Documents):  A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller.  

CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor):  A surcharge on freight charges by a carrier to offset foreign currency fluctuations.  

CARICOM:  Caribbean Common Market.  

CCEF:  Customs Centralized Examination Facility. 

CE (Communauté Européene) Mark:  A "passport" that allows manufacturers to trade industrial products freely within the internal EU market. The CE Mark is not a quality mark, but indicates conformity to the legal requirements of the EU Directives. It is mandatory for a wide range of products sold in the EU. 

C&F (Cost and Freight):  An INCOTERM.  

CFS (Container Freight Station):  The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be packed into containers by the carrier. At discharge ports, the term CFS means the bonded location designated by carriers in the port area for unpacking and delivery of cargo.  

CFS Charge (Container Freight Charge):  The charge assessed for services performed at the loading or discharging port in the packing or unpacking of cargo into/from containers at CFS.  

CFS Receiving Services:  The service performed at the loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers from CFS to CY or shipside. "CFS Receiving Services" referred herein are restricted to the following:  

  1. Moving empty containers from CY to CFS. 
  2. Drayage of loaded containers from CFS to CY and/or ship's tackle.
  3. Tallying.
  4. Issuing dock receipt/shipping order.
  5. Physical movement of cargo into, out of, and within CFS.
  6. Stuffing, sealing, and marking containers.
  7. Storage.
  8. Ordinary sorting and stacking.
  9. Preparing carrier's internal container load plan.

CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier):  The term CFS/CFS means cargo delivered by breakbulk to carrier's container freight station (CFS) to be packed by carrier into containers and to be unpacked by carrier from the container at carrier's destination port CFS.

CFS/CY (Pier to House):  The term CFS/CY means cargo delivered breakbulk to carrier's CFS to be packed by carrier into containers and accepted by consignee at carrier's CY and unpacked by the consignee off carrier's premises, all at consignee's risk and expense.

C&I:  The cost of goods and insurance. (See INCOTERMS)

CIA (Cash in Advance):  A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller prior to shipping the goods.

CIF:  An INCOTERM. 

CITES:  Committee on International Trade of Endangered Species.

cm:  Centimeters.

CNS (Cargo Network Services):  An agency to which IATA forwarders pay their freight bills.

CWO (Cash With Order):  A method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.

Cabotage:  Where cargo is carried on what is essentially a domestic flight and therefore not subject to international agreements that fix set rates. Cabotage rates are negotiable between shipper and airline and apply on flights within a country and to its overseas territories.

Captain's Protest: A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port, showing conditions encoun­tered during voyage-generally for purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo, thus requiring cargo owners to look to the insurance company for reimbursement.

Car Lining: Material placed on the walls of a car for the pro­tection of goods.

Car Pooling: The pooling of car equipment through coordinating the operation under a central control for the joint and pro­portional benefit of car owners and users of all cars owned by two or more railroads or by a central agency serving two or more railroads.

Car Seal: A device for fastening or locking the doors of cars.

Car Service: The general serv­ice of a railroad in distributing and handling cars.

Caretaker: A person accompany­ing a shipment requiring special attention while en route.

Carfloat: A large flat‑bottomed boat equipped with tracks on which railroad cars are moved in inland waterways.

Cargo Insurance:  Insurance to protect the financial interest of the cargo owner during transportation in the event of a loss.

Cargo:  Merchandise/commodities carried by means of transportation. The lading of a vessel, car or vehicle.

Cargo Receipt:  Receipt of cargo for shipment by a consolidator (used in ocean freight).

Cargo Tonnage (Weight or Measurement): The weight ton in the United States is 2,000 or 2,240 pounds and in British countries it is the English long or gross ton of 2,240 pounds.  In France and other countries having the metric system the weight ton is 2,204.62 pounds.  The measurement ton is usually 40 cubic feet, but in some in­stances a larger number of cubic feet is taken as a weight ton.  Most ocean freight is taken at weight or measurement (W/M), ship's option.

Carload Minimum Weight: The least weight at which a ship­ment is handled at a carload rate.

Carload Rate: A rate applicable to a carload quantity of goods.

Carload: (a) The quantity of freight required for the application of a carload rate; and (b) A car loaded to its carrying capacity.

Carmack Amendment: An amendment to the Interstate Commerce Act relative to bills of lading forms and liability of carriers there under (Section 20 of the Act.)

Car-mile: (a) A unit used in com­paring freight earnings or ex­pense-the amount earned from or the costs of hauling a car of freight one mile; and (b) The movement of a car one mile.

Carnet:  A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds.

Carrier:  An individual, partner­ship or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods.   Any person who, through a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway, or by a combination of modes. (See also Common Carrier.)

Carrier Container/Shipper Container:  A container over which the carrier or the shipper has control either by ownership or by the acquisition thereof under lease or rental from container companies or container suppliers or from similar sources. Carriers are prohibited from purchasing, leasing, or renting a shipper-owned container.

Carrier's Lien: Right of carrier to retain property that it has transported as security for the collection charges.

Cartage Allowance: See pick-up allowance.

Cartage to Shipside: The charge made for carting, draying or trucking freight to alongside a vessel.

Cartage: The charge made for hauling freight on carts, drays or trucks.

Cartel:  An association of several independent national or international business organizations that regulates competition by controlling the prices, the production, or the marketing of a product or industry.

Carting: The hauling of freight on carts, drays or trucks.

Carting to Shipside: The carting, draying or trucking of freight to alongside a vessel.

Cash Against Documents: Pay­ment for goods upon presenta­tion of documents evidencing shipment.

Certificate of Analysis:  A certificate issued by a recognized organization or government authority confirming the quality and composition of goods. This is often required in importing countries for animal and plant products for consumption as well as pharmaceuticals.

Certificate of Inspection:  A certificate usually required for industrial equipment and meat products. There are companies in every port city that specialize in issuing certificates of inspection for machinery. The Meat Inspection Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture issues certificates of inspection for meat products that are recognized throughout the world.

Certificate of Manufacture:  A document used under a letter of credit containing an affidavit that goods have been manufactured and are being held for the account and risk of the buyer. In war times when transportation facilities are disrupted, it is common for letters of credit to be paid against presentation of a certificate of manufacture. This is rare in ordinary times, except in the case of specially manufactured goods.

Certificate of Origin:  A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. It is used for customs or foreign exchange purposes or both. Certificates of origin are commonly certified by an official organization in the country of origin such as a consular office or a chamber of commerce.  A certified document as to the origin of goods.

Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: Authority or certificate granted by the Inter­state Commerce Commission to common carriers by railroad motor vehicle and water to operate in interstate commerce.

Certificate of Weight: An au­thoritative statement of the weight of a shipment.

Certiorari: To be more fully in­formed.  An original writ or ac­tion whereby a cause is removed from an inferior to a superior court for trial.  The record of the proceedings is then transmitted to the superior court.

Channels of Distribution: The means by which a manufacturer distributes products from the plant to the ultimate user, includes warehouses, brokers, wholesalers, retailers, etc.

Chargeable Kilo:  Rate for air freight goods where volume exceeds six cubic meters to the tonne.

Charter Agreement/Charter Party:  A lease or agreement to hire an airplane, vessel, or other means of conveyance to transport goods to one or more designated locations. Among other specifications, the contract usually stipulates the exact obligations of the vessel owner (loading the goods, carrying the goods to a certain point, returning to the charterer with other goods, etc.), or it provides for an outright leasing of the vessel to the charterer, who then is responsible for his own loading and delivery. In either case, the charter party sets forth the exact conditions and requirements agreed upon by both sides.

Charter Party Bill of Lading:  A bill of lading issued under a charter party. It is not acceptable by banks under letters of credit unless so authorized in the credit.

Charter:  Originally meant a flight where a shipper contracted hire of an aircraft from an airline, but has usually come to mean any non-scheduled commercial service.

Chartered Ship: A ship leased by its owner or agent for a stated time, voyage or voyages.

Chassis:  A wheel assemble including bogies constructed to accept mounting of containers.

Circuitous Route: An extremely indirect route.

Citation of Decision: The refer­ence made to the location of a decision or opinion rendered by a court or a commission.  A citation such as 29 I.C.C., 161 would be to page 161 of volume 29, the Interstate Commerce Commission's Report.

Civil Aeronautics Board: The federal agency charged with the responsibility of regulating air commerce and air carriers.

Claim: A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its negligence.

Claim Tracer: A request for ad­vice concerning the status of a claim.

Class I Motor Carriers: Carriers having average annual gross op­erating revenues (including in­terstate and intrastate) of $1,000,000 or more from property motor carrier operations.

Class I Railroads: Railroads hav­ing annual operating revenue of $3,000,000 or more.

Class II Motor Carriers: Carriers having average annual gross op­erating revenues (including interstate and intrastate) of $200,000 but less than $1,000, 000 from property motor car­rier operations.

Class II Railroads: Railroads having annual operating reve­nue of less than $3,000,000.

Class III Motor Carriers: Car­riers having average annual gross operating revenues (in­cluding interstate and intrastate) of less than $200,000 from property motor carrier opera­tions.

Class and Commodity Tariff:  A tariff containing both class and commodity rates.

Class Rates:  A class of goods or commodities is a large grouping of various items under one general heading, and all items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items in the class are called class rates.

Class Tariff: A tariff containing only class rates.

Classification:  A customs term for the placement of an item under the correct number in the customs tariff for duty purposes. At times this procedure becomes highly complicated; it is not uncommon for importers to resort to litigation over the correct duty to be assessed by customs on a given item.

Classification (Freight): A publication containing a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for the purpose of applying class rates, together with governing rules and regulations.

Classification Rating: The class to which an article is assigned for the purpose of applying class rates.

Classification Yard: The pIace where cars are segregated by the carriers according to their destinations or deliveries and made ready for proper train movement or delivery.

Clean Bill of Lading: A bill of lading receipted by carrier for merchandise in good condition (no damage, loss, etc., apparent), and which does not bear such notations as "Ship­per's Load and Count," etc.

Clean Draft:  A draft to which no documents have been attached.

Cleaning in Transit: The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., at a point located between the points of origin and destination to be cleaned.

Clear Days: Business days free from weather interference, strikes or government restraints.

Clear Record: A record that shows that a shipment was han­dled without any loss or dam­age being sustained.

Clearance Limits: The dimen­sions beyond which the size of or projections on a shipment may not extend in order to clear obstructions along railway tracks, such as switchstands, platforms, tunnels, mail cranes, water tanks, third rails, low bridges, signal stands, etc.

Cleat: A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength; to prevent warping; to hold in position.

Closed-loop Transportation: Form of carriage (private or dedicated contract or for hire) where shipper pays total transportation costs, including empty miles.

Coastwise: By way of, or along the coasts in transportation by water.

Collective Paper:  All documents (commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.

Collector of Customs: A repre­sentative of the United States Treasury Department acting for the government in connection with foreign traffic.

Combi:  An aircraft with pallet or container capacity on its main deck as well as in its belly holds.

Combination Rate: A rate made by combining two or more rates published in different tariffs.

Combination Through Rate: A through rates made by combining two or more rates published in different tariffs.

Combination Vessels:  A type of ship that accommodates both container and breakbulk cargo. It can be either self-sustaining or non-self sustaining. Also known as a Container/Breakbulk Vessel.

Commercial Attache: A repre­sentative of the Bureau of For­eign and Domestic Commerce located in a foreign country for the purpose of assisting and fostering the foreign trade of the United States.

Commercial Aviation: Transpor­tation of persons or property via air routes operated as a business enterprise.

Commercial Invoice:  An itemized list of goods shipped that is usually included among an exporter's collection papers.

Commission: The fee a transportation broker receives from the carrier when the carrier bills the freight bill to the billee defined by the bill of lading directly. (See "Spread" and "Fee for Services" below.)

Commodity: Any article of com­merce.  Goods shipped.

Commodity Clause: Section 1(8) of the Interstate Commerce Act makes it unlawful for a railroad to transport any article or com­modity, other than timber and its products, which it owns or in which it has an interest ex­cept those articles intended for its use as a carrier.

Commodity Rate: A rate appli­cable on a specific commodity between certain specified points.

Commodity Specialist:  An official authorized by the U.S. Treasury to determine the proper tariff and value of imported goods.

Commodity Tariff: A tariff con­taining only commodity rates.

Common Carrier:  A publicly or privately owned firm or corporation that transports the goods of others over land, sea, or through the air, for a stated freight rate. By government regulation, a common carrier is required to carry all goods offered if accommodations are available and the established rate is paid.  A transporta­tion line engaged in the busi­ness of handling persons or goods for compensation and for all persons impartially.

Common Carrier: Generally, a transportation company whose services are available to any shipper at any time for either full trailer load shipments (TL) or less-than-trailer load shipments (LTL). Federal regulation under the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) tried to enforce this definition. When the ICC was terminated in 1995, the statutes explicitly let the distinction between common and contract carrier lapse. There are now only motor carriers and all dealings and commitments are contractual between carrier and shipper.

Common External Tariff (CET or CXT):  A uniform tariff adopted by a customs union or common market on imports from countries outside the union. It is often a required part of the entry process.

Common Law: That system of law which does not rest for its authority upon any express statute, but derives its force and authority from consent, custom and usage.  It is supposed to be law brought to the United States from England.

Common Point: A point reached by two or more transportation lines.

Common Tariff: A tariff pub­lished by or for the account of two or more transportation lines as issuing carriers.

Communications Act of 1934: An Act of Congress regulating communication by wire or radio.  Approved June 19, 1934.

Compartment Tank Car: A tank car with compartments or sepa­rate tanks into which different kinds or grades of oil or other liquids may be transported.

Compartmentizer Car: A boxcar equipped with moveable bulk­heads which can be used to di­vide the car into separate com­partments.

Competitive Point: A point at which two or more transporta­tion Iines compete for the movement of traffic.

Competitive Rate: A rate estab­lished by a transportation line to meet competition of another transportation line.

Competitive Traffic: Traffic in the movement of which two or more transportation lines com­pete.

Complainant: A person or party who makes a complaint.

Complaint: (See Formal and In­formal Complaint.)

Compression in Transit: Ship­ment of uncompressed cotton tendered to the carrier and compressed by or at the expense of the carrier before de­livery at destination.  The cost of such compression in transit is included in the rate itself and is paid for by the carrier out of such rate.

Compression: A term applying to cotton and meaning the com­pression of a bale of flat cot­ton to either standard density or high density.

Concealed Damage: Damage to the contents of a package which is in good order ex­ternally.

Concealed Loss: A loss from a package bearing no indication of having been opened.

Concentrate: To bring to a com­mon center; to gather into one body or force.

Concentration Point: A point at which less than carload ship­ments are brought together to be reforwarded as a carload.

Concurrence (Tariff): A docu­ment filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission by which a transportation line con­curs in rates, etc., published in connection with its line by a publishing agent or another-transportation line.

Conditional Rate: (See Released Rate.)

Conference Rate: Rates arrived at by conference of carriers applic­able to transportation, generally water transportation.

Conference:  A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

Confirmed Letter of Credit:  (See Letter of Credit, Confirmed)

Confiscation:  The taking and holding of private property by a government or a agency acting for a government. Compensation may or may not be given to the owner of the property.

Connecting Carrier: A carrier that has a direct physical con­nection with another or forming a connecting link between two or more carriers.

Consignee Mark:  A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes generally consisting of a triangle, square, circle, diamond, or cross, with letters or numbers as well as the port of discharge.

Consignee Marks: A symbol placed on packages for export, generally consisting of a square, triangle, diamond circle, cross, etc., with designed letters and/or numbers for the purpose of identification.

Consignee:  The individual or company to whom a seller or shipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of necessary documents, is recognized as the merchandise owner for the purpose of declaring and paying customs duties. The person or company receiving the goods.  The person to whom articles are shipped.

Consignment:  The physical transfer of goods from a seller (consignor) with whom the title remains until the goods are sold, to another legal entity (consignee) who acts as a selling agent. Only if there is a subsequent sale does the seller receive any payment.

Consignor:  A term used to describe any person who consigns goods to himself or to another party in a bill of lading or equivalent document. A consignor might be the owner of the goods, or a freight forwarder who consigns goods on behalf of his principal. The person by whom articles are shipped.

Consolidated Shipment:  An arrangement whereby various shippers pool their boxed goods on the same shipment, sharing the total weight charge for the shipment.

Consolidation:  The process of analyzing orders to determine the groupings that result in least cost/best service fulfillment and transportation or simply combinations of freight going to similarly destinations, whether combined by shipper(s) or by carrier(s).

Consolidator:  An agent who brings together a number of shipments for one destination to qualify for preferential rates.

Consortium:  The name for an agreement under which several nations or nationals (usually corporations) of more than one nation join together for a common purpose (e.g., a shipping consortium).

Constructive Mileage: An arbitrary mileage allowed to a transportation line in dividing joint rates, etc., on a mileage pro­rate (not the actual mileage).

Constructive Placement: When, due to some disability on the part of the consignor or con­signee, a car cannot be placed for loading or unloading at a point previously designated by the consignor or consignee, and it is placed elsewhere, it is considered as being under Con­structive Placement and subject to demurrage rules and charges, the same as if it were actually placed at the designated point.

Consul:  A government official residing in a foreign country charged with representing the interests of his or her country and its nationals.

Consular Documents:  Special forms signed by the consul of a country to which cargo is destined.

Consular Invoice: A document required by some foreign coun­tries showing exact information as to consignor, consignee, value description, etc., of a ship­ment.

Consulate: The office or posi­tion of a consul, also the prem­ises occupied officially by a consul.

Consulting Services: Performing studies and analyses of logistics/transportation problems and issues.

Container (Air Cargo):  Air cargo containers are designed in various sizes and irregular shapes to conform to the inside dimensions of a specific aircraft.

Container (Ocean):  Designed to be moved inland on its own chassis, an ocean container can be loaded at the shipper's plant for shipment overseas. The average outside dimensions are generally 20, 35, and 40 feet in length, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high.

Container Car: A flat or open top car such as a gondola on which containers of freight are loaded.

Container Ship:  An ocean-going ship designed to carry containers both internally and on deck. Some are self-sustaining.

Container:  A single, rigid, sealed, reusable metal "box" in which merchandise is shipped by vessel, truck, or rail. Container types include standard, high cube, hardtop, open top, flat, platform, ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, or bulk. Containers (except for flat-rack vehicle rack and portable liquid tank types) have a closure or permanently hinged door that allows ready access to cargo. All containers have constructions, fittings, and fastenings able to withstand, without permanent distortion, all stresses that may be applied in normal service use of continuous transportation. Containers must bear the manufacturer's specifications.

Container: Anything in which articles are packed.

Containerization:  A concept for the ultimate unitizing of cargo used by both steamship lines and air cargo lines. Containers allow a greater amount of cargo protection from weather, damage, and theft.

Continuous Bond:  An annual customs bond insuring compliance with all regulations and requirements.

Continuous Movement: A series of truckload movements in which a customer continues to reload a truck to another destination.

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI): The process of moving from a reactive environment to one of issue prevention. Another important element of CQI is to continually improve upon present processes even when they may not appear to be defective.

Continuous Replenishment: The ongoing refilling or building up of available inventory.

Continuous Seals: A term de­noting that the seals on a car re­mained intact during the move­ment of the car from point of origin to destination; or, if broken in transit, that it was done by proper authority and without opportunity for loss to occur before new seals were applied.

Contra: Against.

Contraband: Illegal or prohib­ited traffic.

Contract Carrier: Any person ports not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.

Contract Logistics: The use of a third party for the purposes of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow and storage of raw materials, in process inventory, finished goods and related information from point of origin to point of consumption.  (See "Third Party Logistics.")

Contract Rate:  This can refer to "service contract" rates which are low, favorable rates fixed over an extended period of time in exchange for which the carrier receives a volume commitment from the shipper.

Contract Warehouse: A warehouse or logistics facility not owned by the user(s), but instead, operated by a company that provides logistics services as its main business, and where the facility or a portion of the facility is dedicated to a specific client that has a contractual agreement of more than 30 days with the company.  Also classified under the term-Third Party Logistics.

Conversion: An appropriation of freight by a carrier.

Corpus Juris: A body of law; Corpus Juris Secundum is a publication containing an encyclopedic treatment of the whole body of the law.

Cost, Insurance, Freight and Exchange: Cost of goods, marine assurance, transportation charges and exchange charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery.

Cost, Insurance, Freight, Collection, Interest: Cost of goods marine insurance, transportation charges, and collection and interest charges and interest are paid to the foreign point of delivery.

Cost, Insurance, Freight, Interest and Exchange: Cost of goods, marine insurance, transportation charges and interest and exchange charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery.

Countertrade:  A reciprocal trading arrangement in which the seller is required to accept goods or other instruments or trade in partial or whole payment for its products. Common transactions include:  barter, buyback, counterpurchase, offset requirements, swap, switch; or triangular trade, evidence, or clearing accounts.

Countervailing Duties:  Special duties imposed on imports to offset the benefits of subsidies to producers or exporters of the exporting country.

Cross Dock Operations: A material handling activity that involves converting product from one type of shipping configuration to another for added convenience or efficiency often involving consolidating shipments or breaking large shipments into smaller ones. The major benefit is that usually the freight does not come to rest, and keeps moving in the supply chain.

Cubic Foot: 1728 cubic inches.

Cubical Capacity: The carrying capacity of a car according to measurement in cubic feet.

Cummins Amendment: An amendment to the Act to Regulate Commerce relating to liability of transportation lines for loss of or damage to freight.

Custom House: The government office where duties, tolls or imposts placed on imports or exports are paid and vessels entered or cleared.

Custom Packaging: The process of configuring products in such a way that they will be more desirable for sale or retail by such packaging techniques as shrink wrapping, bundling, inserting coupons and compiling value paks.

Customs Broker:  An individual or service company that transacts customhouse formalities on behalf of an importer. In the U.S.A., a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country, so check with your local United Shipping Partner for details.

Customs Brokerage: A person acting as an agent in the trans-shipping of freight from foreign countries. Customs Brokers in the U.S. are licensed by the Department of Treasury to clear freight through customs and to collect duty for the account of the government.  (See "Foreign Freight Forwarders" below).

Customs Court:  The court to which importers must appeal or protest decisions made by customs officers.

Customs Tariff: A schedule of charges assessed by the government on imported or exported goods.

Customs Union:  An agreement between two or more countries in which they arrange to abolish tariffs and other import restrictions on each other's goods and establish a common tariff for the imports of all other countries.

Cycle Time: The time allowed to work on each piece or unit of production; also, the total time it takes to manufacture a product to custom specifications, from raw material acquisition to point of purchase. On non customized products, it is the time required between receipt of a purchase order and delivery to the customer.

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DAT:  Dangerous Articles Tariff.

DCA (Department of Civil Aviation):  Denotes the government department of any foreign country that is responsible for aviation regulation and granting traffic rights.

DDC:  Destination Delivery Charge.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid):  Also known as "free domicile."

DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid):  This reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.

DEQ:  Delivered Ex Quay (duty paid).

D. F. Car (Damage Free Car): A boxcar equipped with special bracing material.

DF: Dead Freight.

DGR:  Dangerous Goods Requirement.

DO:  Delivery Order.

DOT:  U.S. Department of Transportation.

DST (Double Stack Train):  The transport by rail between two points of a trainload of containers with two containers per chassis, one on top of the other.

d.w. (deadweight):  The maximum carrying capacity of a ship expressed in tons of cargo, stores, provisions, and bunker fuel.

d.w.c. (deadweight cargo):  Cargo of such weight and volume that a long ton (2,240 lbs) is stowed in an area of less than 70 cubic feet.

Dangerous Goods:  Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety, or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when being transported.

Date Draft:  A draft that matures in a specified number of days after issuance without regard to date of acceptance.

Dead Freight:  Freight charges paid by the charterer of a vessel for the contracted space that is left partially unoccupied.

Dead Leg:  A sector flown without payload.

Dead Space: (a) Steamer space engaged but not used by the Shipper; and (b) Unoccupied space.

Deadweight Tonnage: The number of tons (2,240 pounds) of cargo, stores and bunker fuel that a vessel can transport.  It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the "load water line."  Deadweight tonnage is used interchangeably with deadweight carrying capacity.  A vessel's capacity for weight cargo is less than its total deadweight tonnage.  (See Net Tonnage.)

Deck Cargo:  Cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On-deck carriage is required for certain commodities, such as explosives.

Dedicated Capacity: Transportation service where a carrier's service for a shipper is based on contractual rates for a minimum number of mutually convenient shipments.

Dedicated Contract Carriage:  A complete transportation function provided to a shipper by a third party. It typically consists of all the equipment, systems and people required to accomplish the specific needs of a specific client. Transportation management of moving assets, operations, drivers, regulatory compliance, equipment, insurance, routing and customer services customized to meet a company's needs.

Dedicated Distribution Facilities:  A distribution facility operated by a company that provides logistics services as its main business and where the facility or a portion of the facility is dedicated to a specific client that has a contractual agreement of more than 30 days with the company.

Defendant:  A person or party answerable to a complaint.

Deferred Rebate:  The return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier or a conference shipper in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier or conference over a specified period of time (usually six months). Payment of the rate is deferred for a further similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier of conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier or conference. Although the deferred rebate system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce, it generally is accepted in the ocean trade between other countries.

Deferred Shipment Rule: Permitting shipments of cotton from points of origin to certain Gulf ports, moving on through bill of lading, upon instructions from shipper endorsed on bill of lading, to be stopped in transit for compression or for consolidation with other shipments of cotton in order to aggregate the carload minimum, with the protection of the through rate from origin on the weight reshipped from transit station, plus transit charge.

Delivering Carrier: The transportation line by which a shipment is delivered to the consignee.

Delivery: The act of transferring possession, such as the transfer of property from consignor to carrier, one carrier to another or carrier to consignee.

Demountable Body: A box of a motor freight vehicle (chassis or trailer) so constructed as to be used interchangeably on flat car equipment of railroads.

Demurrage:  A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal.  Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.

Demurrage: A penalty charge assessed by carriers for the detention of cars, vehicles or vessels by shippers or receivers of freight beyond a specified free time.

Density of Traffic: The amount of traffic handled per mile within a given region.

Density:  Density means pounds per cubic foot. For motor carrier freight bill rating purposes,  "the cubage of loose articles or pieces, or packaged articles of a rectangular, elliptical, or square shape on one plane, shall be determined by multiplying the greatest straight line dimensions of length, width, and depth in inches, including all projections, and dividing the total by 1728 (to obtain cubic feet)". The density is the weight of the article divided by the cubic feet thus obtained.

Density: The weight of an article or container per cubic foot.  The ratio of mass to bulk or volume.  The number of tons carried over a line (or section of a line) in a unit of time.

Deposition: A sworn statement of a witness taken down in writing to be used as evidence in lieu of the appearance of the witness.

Destination: The place to which a shipment is consigned.

Differential Route: The line or lines which maintain differential rates.

Differential: An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.

Dim Weight (Dimensionalized Weight):  An international airfreight formula determined by calculating length X width X height and dividing by 166. It is charged when the actual weight is less than the dimensionalized weight.

Direct Delivery: The direct transfer of products from the point of manufacture or mass point of distribution to the customer.

Discrimination: Charging one person more than another for a Iike and contemporaneous service under substantially similar circumstances and conditions.

Dispatch Line: Two or more transportation lines jointly operating through fast freight schedules.

Displacement of Vessel: The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents.  Displacement "light" is the weight of the vessel without stores, bunker fuel or cargo.  Displacement "loaded" is the weight of the vessel, plus cargo and stores.

Distance Rate: A rate that is applicable according to distance.

Distribution Channel:   The post-production channel. Not to be confused with the pre-production or materials flow channel.

Diversion: Any change in the billing after shipment has been received by the carrier at point of origin and prior to delivery at destination.  See Reconsignment-terms used interchangeably.

Division: The apportionment by carriers of revenue received from joint traffic.

Dock and Wharf Bonds: Bonds issued to provide funds for the construction and equipment of docks and wharves.

Dock Receipt:  When cargo is delivered to a steamship company at the pier, the receiving clerk issues a dock receipt.

Dock Receipt: A receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a pier or dock.  When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed the dock receipt is surrendered to the transportation line and a bill of lading is issued.

Dockage: The charge made for the use of a dock.

Draft (Vessel): The number of feet or inches below the water line that a vessel is submerged.

Draft:  An unconditional order in writing from one person (the Drawer) to another (the Drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer on a fixed date. Also known as a Bill of Exchange.

Drawback:  A remission of duty or charges paid, in whole or in part, when imported goods are re-exported or used in the manufacture of exported goods.

Drawback: A refund of customs duties paid on material imported and later exported.

Drawee:  The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer.

Drayage to Shipside: The charge made for carting, draying or freight to alongside trucking a vessel.

Drayage: The charge made for hauling freight on carts, drays or trucks.

Draying to Shipside: The carting, draying or trucking of freight to alongside a vessel.

Draying: The hauling of freight on carts, drays or trucks.

Drilling (Car): The handling or switching of cars in freight yards.

Dry Dockage: A charge against a vessel that is placed in a dry dock for inspection or repair.

Dry Lease:  The rental of a "clean" aircraft without crew, ground staff, or supporting equipment.

Due Bill: Bill rendered by carrier for undercharges.

Dump Car: An open car equipped with devices for automatically dumping its contents.

Dunnage: The material used to protect or support freight in or on cars and vessels (bracings, false floors, meat racks, sawdust, etc.)

Duty Drawback:  A refund by the government of customs duties paid on material imported but intended to be reshipped in export. It is refunded after proof of the material's exportation.

Duty: A tax levied by a government on the importation, exportation or use and consumption of goods.

Dynamic Routing: The act of designing specific routes for carriers to follow when making specific one-time pick-ups and deliveries.

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EAON:  Except As Otherwise Noted.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): An electronic, real‑time method of communicating between one entity and another direct from one computer to another using standard computer formats and data. EDI is used to relay orders, confirm receipt of shipments or provide updates on inventory status.

EDI or EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport):  From the United Nations-backed electronic data interchange standards body; this is used to create electronic versions of common business documents that will work on a global scale.

EXW (Ex-Works):  An INCOTERM.

Efficient Consumer Response: ECR comprises logistics processes that are designed to get products to market through the fewest number of feasible distribution points at optimum cost.

Elevating Charge (Vessel): A charge for services performed in connection with floating ele­vators; also charges assessed for the handling of grain through grain elevators.

Elkins Act: An Act of Congress (1903) prohibiting rebates, concessions, misbilling, etc., and providing specific penalties for such violations.

Embargo: An order prohibiting the acceptance and/or handling of freight at certain points or via certain routes due to emergencies, congestion, strikes, etc.

Emergency Rate: A rate established to meet some immediate and pressing need, and without due regard to the usual rate factors.

Eminent Domain: The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation.

Empty Leg:  Results from an aircraft primarily chartered outbound having cargo capacity inbound or vice versa.  A cheap form of airfreight.

En Route: On the way.

Endorsement in Blank: 

  1. Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee.
  2. Also, a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper. The bills are endorsed "For..." (See Bill of Lading, Order.)

Entry (Customs): A statement of the kinds, quantities and values of goods imported together with duties due, if any, and declared before a Customs Officer or other designated officer.

Equipment Bond: A bond issued to cover cost of the equipment of a carrier.

Equipment: The rolling stock of a railroad or motor carrier, the ships of a steamship line and the planes of an airline.

Estimated Weight: A specific weight provided in a carrier tariff for application on a certain commodity regardless of the actual weight.

Et cetera: And other things and so forth.

Ex Dock: From docks.

Ex Parte: From only one side or party.

Ex Post Facto: After the fact.

Ex. BL:  Exchange Bill of Lading.

Ex: From.

Examiner (I.C.C.): A representative of the Interstate Commerce Commission vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and otherwise conduct hearings of cases submitted to or initiated by the Commission.

Exceptions to Classification: A publication containing classification ratings and rules different from the classification ratings and rules contained in a major classification.

Excess Freight: Freight in excess of the quantity waybilled.

Exchange Bill of Lading: A Bill of Lading issued in exchange for another Bill of Lading.

Exhibit: A document or physical object introduced in evidence.

Expense Bill: (See Freight Bill.)

Expiration Notice: A notice in a tariff that all or some part of it will expire at a stated time.

Export Broker:  The individual who brings together buyer and seller for a fee, eventually withdrawing from any transaction.

Export Declaration:  A form completed by the exporter or its authorized agent and filed in triplicate by a carrier with the U.S. Collector of Customs at the point of exit. It serves a twofold purpose: 

  1. Primarily, it is used by the U.S. Bureau of Census for the compilation of export statistics on U.S. foreign trade. (For this reason, an export declaration is required for practically all shipments from the U.S.A. to foreign countries and the U.S. possessions, except for mail shipments of small value or for those of a non-commercial character.)
  2. The declaration also serves as an export control document because it must be presented, together with the export license, to the U.S. Customs at the port of export. If the goods may be exported under general export license, this fact must be stated on the export declaration.

Export Declarations: See Ship­per's Export Declaration.

Export License:  A document secured from a government authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required if a government has placed embargoes or other restrictions upon exports. (See General Export License.)

Export License: A certificate granting permission to export goods.

Export Rate: A rate published on traffic moving from an in­terior point to a port for trans­shipment to a foreign coun­try.

Export Trading Company:  A corporation or other business unit organized and operated primarily for the purpose of exporting goods and services, or of providing export-related services to other companies.

Export: To send goods to a for­eign country.

Express Train: (a) A passenger train that does not stop at all stations on its route; and (b) A train consisting of Express Freight.

Express:  Premium-rated service for urgent deliveries.

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FAA (Federal Aviation Administration):  The U.S. federal agency responsible for promulgating operational standards and procedures for U.S. aviation.

FAK (Freight All Kinds):  A carrier's tariff description for products pooled and all shipped at one rate. FAK cargo is usually shipped in a container filled with different merchandise or commodities.

FAS (Free Alongside):  An INCOTERM.

FCL:  Full Container Load, Full Car Load.

FEU:  Forty foot equivalent.

F&D:  Freight and Demurrage.

F.c.s.:  Free of capture and seizure.

f.c.s.r.c.c.:  Free of capture, seizure, riots, and civil commotions.

FIATA:  International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.

F.i.b.:  Free in bunkers; free into barge.

FMC:  (See Federal Maritime Commission)

FOB (Free on Board):  An INCOTERM.

F.o.d.:  Free of damage.

FPA:  (See Free of Particular Average.)

FPAAC:  (See Free of Particular Average, American Conditions.)

Fabrication in Transit: The stopping of metal goods at a point located between the points of origin and destination for further process of manufacture.

Facility Site Selection: A process to identify the number, type, size, configuration and location of specific facilities (warehousing, distribution, assembly, etc.) to satisfy a specific set of client requirements.

False Billing: Describing freight on shipping documents so as to misrepresent the actual contents of weight of shipment.

Far East: Western Coast of Pacific Ocean in Vicinity of Japan, China, and Philippine Islands.

Fast Freight Line: Two or more transportation lines jointly operating through fast freight schedules.

Fast Freight Train: A freight train that does not stop at all of the stations on its route.

Fathom:  A nautical measurement with the following conversion equivalents:  6 feet; 1.83 meters.

Federal Aviation Act: An Act of Congress (1958) that supersedes the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 regulating air carriers.

Federal Maritime Commission (FMC):  The U.S. Federal agency responsible for overseeing rates and practices of ocean carriers that handle cargo at U.S. ports.

Fee for Service:  One-method third parties have of charging for their services. Sometimes, along with or in lieu of other types of charges, either shipper or carrier, or both, will be charged a previously agreed upon fee for services. Alternatively, often payment is made using only commissions and/or spreads obtained from billing freight bills. (See also "Commission" and "Spread").

Feeder Vessel:  A vessel that connects with a line vessel to service a port not directly served by that line vessel.

Feeding in Transit: The stopping of shipments of live stock, etc., at a point located between the points of origin and destination to be fed and watered.

Ferry Car: (See Trap Car.)

Finance Docket: The dockets of the Interstate Commerce Commission on which are listed for consideration and decision questions relating to financing, extensions, abandonments, and consolidations of common carriers.

Fink Award: A report issued in 1880 as to freight rate differential at Atlantic ports, when goods were, in addition to rail movement, waterborne.  Albert Fink was chairman of the reporting Committee.

Firkin: A capacity measurement equal to one-fourth of a barrel.

Fishy‑back: The transportation of truck trailers or containers on ships.

Fixed Charges: Charges that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic.

Flag Carrier:  An airline or vessel of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total monopoly over international routes. Flat Bed Chassis:  A semi-trailer with a level bed and no sides or tops. The floor is a standard height from the ground.

Flag Station: A station at which trains only stop upon being signaled.

Flat Car: An open car without sides, ends or top, used principally for hauling lumber, stone, heavy machinery, etc.

Flat Cotton: Cotton, which after picked in the field, is brought to cotton gin where the seed is removed and cotton pressed into a gin bale, the density of which is approximately 12 pounds per cubic foot and ordinarily referred to as flat cotton.

Flat Rack:  A container without sides or frame members at the front and back. It can be loaded from the sides and top.

Flexi-van: Truck trailers or containers that are loaded on specially constructed flat cars equipped with two turntables.

Float Bridge: A bridge connecting car floats and rail landings.

Floatage: The floating or transfer of railroad cars across water; also the charge for such service.

Floating-In Rates: A low basis of rates that applies on shipments of flat cotton from ginning points to compress or concentration points, at the same time assures the inbound carrier of outbound haul.  The floating-in rate is only of a temporary measure.  When cotton is reshipped the through rate is that applicable from the original point of shipment to the final destination, based on the weight reshipped from the concentration point, plus a small transit charge.

Flow Through Distribution: The act of handling newly received materials on a very temporary basis until they can be shipped to their end user, so called because material literally "flows through" the distribution center or warehouse instead of being stored there for long periods of time.

Force Majeure:  The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.

Force Majure: A term or condition typically found in purchasing, rail, and motor contracts that relieves either party from contract obligations if major unforeseen events beyond their control, such as Acts of God, military action or weather, prevent compliance. Typically the obligation is suspended for resumption at a later time.

Foreign Car: A car on the rails of a carrier by which it is not owned.  (See Home Car.)

Foreign Freight Forwarding: A person acting as an agent in the transshipment of freight to foreign countries. In the U.S. they are licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to tabulate and report details of exports for government usage and control. (See "Custom Brokerage.")

Foreign Trade Tone: A site within the U.S. that is outside of U.S. Customs jurisdiction where foreign and domestic merchandise may be stored, exhibited or processed without being subject to Customs entry procedures and payment of duty.

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ):  A port designated by the government for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used for manufacturing within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed only when the original goods or items manufactured from those goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to customs authority. Also called a Free Trade Zone.

Foreign Trade Zone Entry:  A form declaring goods that are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further processing or storage and subsequent exportation from the zone into the commerce of another country.

Formal Complaint (Before I.C.C.): A complaint filed the Interstate Commerce Commission alleging violation of the statute and to be investigated and adjudicated under formal procedure provided by the rules of the Commission.  (See Informal Complaint.)

Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder:  An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment, including preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehousing, pier delivery, and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.

Foul Bill of Lading: A Bill of Lading indicating that a damage or shortage existed at the time of shipment.

Fourth Section Application: A petition of a transportation line to the Interstate Commerce Commission for authority to publish charges not in conformity with the Fourth Section of the Interstate Commerce Act.

Fourth Section Order: An order issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission permitting rail or water carriers to depart from the provisions of Section 4 of the Interstate Commerce Act.

Free In (FI):  Means the cost of loading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free In and Out (FIO):  Means the cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free of Capture and Seizure (FC&S):  An insurance clause providing that loss is not insured if due to capture, seizure, confiscation, and like actions, whether legal or not, or from such acts as piracy, civil war, rebellion, and civil strife.

Free of Particular Average (FPA):  A marine insurance clause relating to the recoverability of partial and total losses from perils of the sea. The American and English coverages vary as follows: 

  1. American Conditions (FPAAC). The underwriter does not assume responsibility for partial losses unless caused by sinking, stranding, burning, or colliding with another vessel.
  2. English Conditions (FPAEC). The underwriter assumes responsibility for partial losses if the vessel is sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision, even though such an event did not actually cause the damage suffered by the goods.

Free of Particular Average Under 5 Percent: A term denoting that no claim under F.P.A. conditions will be allowed unless the actual damage or loss amounts to or exceeds 5% of the amount of the insurance policy.

Free of Particular Average: (a) (American Conditions).  A term denoting that no claim for partial loss or damage will be allowed by assurers unless the loss or damage is caused by the boat or vessel being in a collision, burned, stranded or sunk; and (b) (English Conditions.)  A term denoting that no claim for partial loss or damage will be allowed by assurers unless the boat or vessel has been in a collision, burned, stranded or sunk.

Free Out (FO):  The cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free Port:  A port that is a Foreign Trade Zone open to all traders on equal terms, or more specifically a port where merchandise may he stored duty-free pending re-export or sale within that country.

Free Port: A restricted area at a seaport for the handling of duty exempted import goods.  (Foreign Trade Zone.)

Free Time: The amount of time allowed by the carriers for the loading or unloading of freight at the expiration of which demurrage or detention charges will accrue.

Free Trade Zone:  (See Foreign Trade Zone.)

Free-astray: A shipment miscarried or unloaded at the wrong station is billed and forwarded to the correct station, free of names of consignee and destination, weight and amount of charges.

Freight Bill-Destination Freight Bill: A bill rendered by a transportation line to consignee, giving a description of the freight, the name of the shipper, point of origin, weight and amount of charges (if not prepaid).  Prepaid Freight Bill ¾ A bill rendered by a transportation line to shipper, giving a description of the freight, the names of the consignee and destination, weight and amount of charges.

Freight Charge: The charge assessed for transporting freight.

Freight Claim: A demand upon a carrier for the payment of Overcharge or Loss or Damage sustained by shipper or con­signee.

Freight Forwarder:  1) An individual or company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments from shippers and combines then into larger, usually truckload or carload lots. Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act; 2) An agent who helps expedite shipments by preparing necessary documents/making other arrangements for moving freight.

Freight Forwarder: A person engaged in the business of as­sembling, collecting, consolidat­ing shipping and distributing less than carload or less than truckload freight; also a person acting as agent in the transship­ping of freight to or from foreign countries and the clearing of freight through Federal Cus­toms.

Freight House: The station facil­ity of a transportation line for receiving and delivering freight.

Freight Payment Program: Payment programs that assure that freight bills are paid correctly and on a timely basis.

Freight: Merchandise hauled by transportation lines.

Full Service Leasing: An equipment leasing arrangement that includes a variety of services to support the leased equipment: insurance, maintenance, fuel, permits, taxes, etc., which usually includes the driver.

Furniture Car: A car equipped with facilities for sale and proper handling of furniture.

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GR Wt./GW:  Gross Weight.  

Gang:  A group of stevedores, usually four to five members, with a supervisor assigned to a hold or portion of the vessel being loaded or unloaded.  

Gateway:  A port of entry into a country or region.  

Gateway: A point at which freight moving from one terri­tory to another is interchanged between transportation lines. 

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade):  A multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.  

GCR (General Cargo Rate):  The basic tariff category that was originally introduced to cover most air cargo. It now covers only a minority, the remainder being under SCR or class rates.  

General Average (Marine In­surance): A contribution made by the owners of a ship and its cargo toward a loss sustained by one or more of their number whose property has been thrown overboard or sacrificed neces­sarily in order to save the ship and a part of its cargo. 

General Export License:  Any of various export licenses covering export commodities for which validated export licenses are not required.  

General Order Warehouse:  A government contract warehouse for the storage of cargoes left unclaimed for a designated number of days after availability. Unclaimed cargoes may later be auctioned publicly.  

Gondola Car: An open car with sides and ends used principally for hauling coal, sand, etc. 

Goods: Merchandise in transportation. 

Grain Door: A partition placed across the door of a car to pre­vent loss of grain by leaking. 

Grain Elevator: A storehouse into which grain in bulk is car­ried upward by elevators and placed into bins arranged for the different grades of grain. 

Grandfather Rights: The right under the I.C. Act, of a com­mon carrier by motor vehicle or water to a Certificate of Public Convenience and Neces­sity, as authority to operate over the route or routes, over which it, or its predecessor in interest, was in bona fide oper­ation on a certain date, with­out further proof of public con­venience and necessity.  The right of a contract carrier by motor vehicle or water it) a Permit as authority to operate over the route or routes over which it, or its predecessor in interest, was in bona fide oper­ation on a certain date, with­out further proof. 

Gross Ton: 2,240 pounds. 

Gross Ton-Mile: The movement of a ton of transportation equipment and contents a dis­tance of one mile. 

Gross Tonnage (Vessel): Ap­plies to vessels, not cargo.  It is determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessels closed-in spaces.  A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.  The register of a vessel states both gross and net tonnage. 

Gross Weight:  The full weight of a shipment, including containers and packaging materials.

Gross Weight: (a) The weight of an article together with the weight of its container and the material used for packing; and (b) As applied to a carload; the weight of a car together with the weight of its entire contents.

Ground Storage: The storing of shipments on the ground.

Guide Book: A tariff contain­ing instructions for waybilling and routing shipments and bases for rates to certain points.

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Harbor Dues: Charges assessed for services at harbors.

Harbor Master: An officer who attends to the berthing, etc., of ships in a harbor.

Harbor: A port or haven where ships may anchor.

Harmonized Code:  An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical, and other purposes.

Harmonized System (HS):  A key provision of the international trade bill, effective January 1, 1989, that established international uniformity for classifying goods moving in international trade under a single commodity code.

Hatch:  The cover of, or opening in, the deck of a vessel through which cargo is loaded.

Hatch: The opening in the deck of a vessel that gives access to the cargo hold.

Hazmat: A substance or material in a quantity or form, which may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property when transported in commerce. A "hazardous material" as defined by national and/or international authorities.

Hearing: The time and place where formal presentation of evidence in a case at issue is submitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Heater Car: An insulated boxcar equipped with heating appara­tus for the protection of perishables.

Heavy Lift Charge: A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.

Heavy Lift Vessel:  A vessel specifically designed to be self-sustaining with heavy lift cranes to handle unusually heavy or outsized cargoes.

Heavy Lift: Articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle. 

Heavy Lifts:  Freight too heavy to be handled by regular ship's tackle.  

Hi (or High) Cube:  Any container exceeding 102 inches in height.  

High Density: The compression of flat or standard bale of cotton to high density of approximately 32 pounds per cubic foot.  This compression usually applies to cotton exported or shipped coastwise.  Also high-density compression is used on domestic movements at lower rates and high minima.

Highway: The roads, highways, streets and ways in any State.

Hold Track: A track on which cars are held awaiting disposal orders.

Home Car: A car on the tracks of its owner.  (See Foreign Car.)

Hopper Car: A railroad car with floor sloping to one or more hoppers through which contents may be unloaded by gravity.

House Air Waybill:  An air waybill issued by a freight consolidator. (See also Air Waybill.)

Hub:  A central location to which traffic from many cities is directed and from which traffic is fed to other areas.

Hump: That part of a track that is elevated so that when a car is pushed up on "the hump" and uncoupled it runs down on the other side by gravity.

Hundredweight (cwt.):  Short ton hundredweight = 100 pounds. Long ton hundredweight = 112 pounds.

Husbanding:  A term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain such services as bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, and ship repair.

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IATA:  International Air Transport Association.

Ibid: (Ibidem) In the same place or decision.

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization):  A specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in Montreal. It promotes general development of civil aviation such as aircraft design and operation, safety procedures, and contractual agreements.

ICC (International Chamber of Commerce):  A non-governmental organization serving as a policy advocate on world business.

ICTF (Intermodal Container Transfer Facility):  An on-dock facility for moving containers from ship to rail or truck.

IFF:  Institute of Freight Forwarders.

i.p.a.:  Including particular average.

INCOTERMS:  A set of international rules for the uniform interpretation of common contract clauses in international trade.

ISO 9000:  A series of voluntary international quality standards.

Icing Charge: A charge made for icing perishable freight.

Identify of Shipment: Preserva­tion of original character of shipments stopped in transit, so that no substitution occurs out­bound from the transit point.

Idle Hour System: A system of distributing cars to coal mines under which the allotment of empty cars to each mine is in­creased or reduced according to the number of hours the mine is idle in comparison with other mines.

Igloo:  A container designed to occupy the full main deck width of carrying aircraft.

Import License:  A certificate issued by countries exercising import controls that permits importation of the articles stated in the license. The issuance of such a permit frequently is collected with the release of foreign exchange needed to pay for the shipment for which the import license has been requested.

Import: To receive goods from a foreign country.

In re: In the matter of.

In transitu: Intransit; on the passage.

In-Bond:  A customs program for inland ports that provides for cargo arriving at a seaport to be shipped under a customs bond to a more conveniently located inland port where the entry documents have been filed. Customs clears the shipment there and the cargo is trucked to its destination, which normally is close to the inland port.

Inbound Logistics: The movement of materials and products to a company's manufacturing plant or storage areas. The logistics activity having to do with a receiver's inbound freight.

Income Bond: A bond issued by a railroad secured by a lien against the income of the rail­road.

Indemnity Bond: (See Bond Indemnity)

Independent Action:  A move whereby a member of a shipping conference elects to depart from the specific freight rates, terms, or conditions set forth by the conference. No prior approval of the conference is needed.

Individual Tariff: A tariff issued by a transportation line indi­vidually.

Inducement:  When steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words "by inducement" in parentheses, this means the vessel will call at the port if there is a sufficient amount of profitable cargo available and booked.

Industrial Carrier; Industrial Line; Industrial Road: A short rail­road owned or controlled by one or more of the principal industries served by it.  It may be either a common carrier with all the rights and obligations attached thereto, or merely a private carrier or plant facility.  Moreover, it may, whether a common carrier or a plant facil­ity, be separately incorporated or operated merely as a department of the operating company's business.

Inflammable Liquids: Liquids that give off vapors that become combustible at a certain temperature.

Informal Complaint (Before I.C.C.): (a) A complaint filed informally with the Commission for the purpose of obtain­ing its permission and authority to remedy the condition complained of, the complainant and defendant being in agree­ment as to the merits of the complaint; and (b) A complaint filed informally with the Interstate Commerce Commission in a case which may be handled and likely disposed of by the Commission through correspondence with the parties interested.  (See Formal Complaint.)

Initial Carrier: The transportation line to which a shipment is de­livered by the shipper.

Initial Point: The point at which a shipment originates.

Initials, Car: Initials used to sig­nify the name of railroad car owner.

Inland Carrier:  A transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

Inland Carrier: A transportation line which hauls export or im­port traffic between ports and inland points.

Inspection Certificate:  A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to shipment.

Insurance Broker: A person who negotiates insurance contracts.

Integrated Carrier:  A forwarder that uses its own aircraft, whether owned or leased, rather than scheduled airlines.

Integrated Information Service: The integration of a third party's information systems with a client's to facilitate the efficient flow of data and information between the two parties and the automatic updating of each respective systems. Usually uses computer-to-computer flow of information, EDI or otherwise.

Integrated Order Management: Includes tools and services to integrate processes involved in order entry and management from customer information and credit checks through on‑line product availability, order processing and delivery instructions.

Integrated Supply Chain Logistics: A group of innovative services that orchestrates sourcing, manufacturing and distribution of products from raw materials through consumer goods.

Intellectual Property:  Ownership of the legal rights to possess, use, or dispose of products created by human ingenuity, including patents, trademarks and copyrights.

Inter alia: Among other things.

Inter: Between.

Interchange Point: A station at which freight in the course of transportation is delivered by one transportation line to an­other.

Interchange Switching: The serv­ice performed in transferring cars from one transportation line to another as part of a transportation movement.

Interchange Track: A track on which freight is delivered by one transportation line to an­other.

Intercoastal: Between one coast and another‑as between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Interline Freight: Freight mov­ing from point of origin to des­tination over the lines of two or more transportation lines.

Interline Waybill: A waybill covering the movement of freight over two or more trans­portation lines.

Interline:  A mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.

Interline: Between two or more transportation lines.

Intermediate Carrier: A transpor­tation line over which a ship­ment moves but on which neither the point of origin nor destination is located.

Intermediate Clause: A clause or basis contained in a tariff to provide for rates to a point not named therein, but which is intermediate to points that are named.

Intermediate Point: A point lo­cated between two other points specifically named.

Intermodal Transportation: Transportation movement involving more than one mode (e.g., rail/motor, motor/air, motor/water or rail/water).

Intermodal:  This refers to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck or the like. The adjective generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle the same.

Interstate Commerce Act: An Act of Congress regulating the practices, rates and rules of transportation lines engaged in handling interstate traffic.  (See Act to Regulate Commerce.)

Interstate Commerce Commission: The Federal body charged with the duty of enforcing acts of Congress affecting com­mon carriers in interstate com­merce.

Interstate Commerce: Is com­merce from one State or Ter­ritory of the United States, or the District of Columbia, to any other or from any place in the United States through a foreign country to any other place in the United States or from or to any place in the United States to or from a foreign country, but only insofar as such trans­portation takes place within the United States.

Interstate Traffic: Traffic moving from a point in one State to a point in another State; between points in the same State, but passing within or through another State en route; and between points in the United States and foreign countries.

Interstate: Between States.

Inter-Terminal Switching: The moving of cars from a place on one transportation line to a place on another, when both places are within the switching limits of the same station or industrial switching districts.

Intervene: To take action and participate in proceedings that have been instituted by others.

Intra: Within.

In-transit Merge: The consolidation of products from multiple origin sites into a single delivery to a single customer.

Intra-Plant Switching: The mov­ing of cars from one place to another within the yards of a plant or industry.

Intrastate Traffic: Traffic having origin, destination and entire transportation within the same State.

Intra-Terminal Switching: The moving of cars (other than in­tra‑plant switching) from one place to another on the same transportation line within the switching limits of one station or industrial switching district.

Inventory Deployment (ID): The logistics component that brings value to the customer by efficiently and effectively staging and distributing goods while reducing or eliminating storage.

Inventory Management: The process of managing the building up and disbursement of the inventory-products and material-used in manufacturing or distribution.

Inventory, Vendor-Managed (VMI):  1) A program that requires a supplier or vendor to manage their product levels within a customer's facility; and 2) Providing of support tools to allow vendors to manage product inventory levels at their retailers' locations and supporting initialization of payment upon pass‑through sale to consumer.

Investigation and Suspension Docket: Docket of cases be­fore Commission that deal with suspension of tariff rates or rules.

Issuing Carrier: The carrier by which a tariff is published or bill of lading or other docu­ments are issued.

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J&WO:  Jettison and Washing Overboard.

Jacket: A wood or fibre cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles.

Jetsam:  Goods from a ship's cargo or parts of its equipment that have been thrown overboard to lighten the load in time of danger or to set a stranded ship adrift.

Jettison: To unload or throw overboard at sea a part of a ship's paraphernalia or cargo to relieve the ship when in danger.

Joint Agent: A person having authority to transact business for two or more transportation lines.

Joint Boards: Boards, consisting of members from interested States, created by Interstate Commerce Commission, under provisions of Section 205 of Motor Carrier Act.

Joint Rate: A rate applicable from a point located on one transportation line to a point located on another transporta­tion line, made by agreement or arrangement between and published in a single tariff under proper concurrence of all transportation lines over which the rate applies.

Joint Tariff: A tariff containing joint rates.

Joint Through Rate: A joint rate published as a unit to apply from a point on the line of one transportation line to a point on another.

Joint Traffic: Traffic moving be­tween stations located on one transportation line and stations located on another transporta­tion line.

Joint Venture:  A term of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.

Jones Act:  An act of the U.S. Congress prohibiting foreign flag carriers from participating in the U.S. intercoastal trade by water. It currently is applicable in such trade lanes as the U.S. continental states to and from Hawaii and Alaska.

Judicial Notice: Consideration of facts generally known by the court or commission, when its attention is directed to them, without production of proof that they exist.

Junction Point: (a) A point at which a branch‑line track con­nects with a main‑line track; and (b) A point at which two or more transportation lines inter­change freight over connecting tracks.

Jurisdiction: The power of a court or other tribunal to entertain and decide any question viz.: the authority, which such a body as the Interstate Com­merce Commission has over rates, rules, and regulations of carriers.

Just in Time (JIT):  The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for production or use.

Just-in-time (JIT):  The process of timing logistics so that materials or products arrive just before they are needed, rather than stockpiling materials or parts.

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KDCL:  Knocked Down in Carload Lots.

KDLCL:  Knocked Down in Less than Carload Lots.

Kanban:  The Japanese word referring to the manufacturing control system in which suppliers deliver needed parts just in time to the assembly line for use. 

KD Flat:  An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped to reduce its bulk at least 66-2/3% below its assembled size.

Kitting: The act of grouping related components into a single entity or "kit" for the convenience of the end user.

Knocked Down (KD):  An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least 33-l/3% below its assembled bulk.

Knocked Down: A term denot­ing that an article is partially or entirely taken apart (not set up).

Knot, Nautical:  The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile:  6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.

Knot: The nautical mile (6082.-­66 feet).

Known Damage: A damage dis­covered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

Known Loss: A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

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LASH:  Lighter Aboard Ship. (See Lighter.)

L/C:  (See Letter of Credit.)

LCL:  Less than Container Load; Less than Car load.

L&D:  Loss and Damage.

Lkg. & Bkg.:  Leakage and Breakage.

I.t. or l.tn.:  Long ton (2240 Ibs.)

Ltge.:  Lighterage.

LTL:  (See Less than Truckload)

Lading: That which constitutes a load.  The freight in a car or vessel.

Lagan:  Cargo or equipment to which an identifying marker or buoy is fastened and thrown overboard in time of danger to lighten a ship's load. Under maritime law, if the goods are later found they must be returned to the owner whose marker is attached. The owner must make a salvage payment.

Land Grant Deduction: A de­duction made from freight charges on government traffic in consideration of a land grant.

Land Grant Rate: A special rate applied on government traffic in consideration of a land grant.

Land Grant: Land granted or given by the government to a transportation line.

Landed Weight: The weight at the point of landing.

Lash Vessels:  Barges specifically designed to load on a vessel internally and for quick vessel turnaround. The concept is to quickly float the barges to the vessel (using tugs or ships wenches), load the barges through the rear of the vessel, then sail. Upon arrival at the foreign port, the reverse happens. Barges are quickly floated away from the vessel and another set of waiting barges quickly are loaded. Usually crane-equipped, these barges handle mostly break bulk cargo.

Lawful Rate: A rate published in conformity with the provi­sions of the regulatory law and which does not violate any other provisions of such law.

Lay Day: The period of time in which a ship is to be loaded or unloaded.

Lay Days:  The dates between which a chartered vessel is to be available in a port for loading of cargo.

Legal Rate: A rate published in conformity with the rules gov­erning such publication.

Legal Weight:  The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings that are sold along with the goods, e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents. (See also Gross Weight)

Legal Weight: The weight of the goods and interior packing but not the container (a term used in foreign trade).

Less than Carload Rate: A rate applicable to a less than car­load shipment.

Less than Carload: The quantity of freight less than that re­quired for the application of a carload rate.

Less than Truckload (LTL):  Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum weight.

Letter of Credit (L/C):  A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.

Letter of Credit, Confirmed:  A letter of credit containing a guarantee on the part of both the issuing and advising banks of payment to the seller, provided the seller's documentation is in order and the terms of the letter of credit are met.

Letter of Credit: A form letter issued by a bank indicating that a purchaser in a foreign coun­try has established credit in a specified amount in the seller's favor and that payment will be made upon presentation of draft together with certain specified documents.

Lien: A legal claims upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.

Lighter:  An open or covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and inland waterways.

Lighter: A flat‑bottomed boat used usually in inland water­ways.

Lighterage Limits: The limits of the area within which freight is handled by lighters or barges under certain lightering charges, rules and regulations.

Lighterage to Shipside: The charge made for lightering freight to along side a vessel.

Lighterage:  The cost of loading or unloading a vessel by means of barges alongside.

Lighterage: The charge made for hauling freight on lighters or barges.

Lightering to Shipside: The lightering of freight to along­side a vessel.

Lightering: The hauling of freight on lighters or barges.

Line-Haul Switching: The mov­ing of cars within yard or switching limits of a station, preceding or following a line haul.  (See Terminal Switching.)

Line haul:  The management of freight between cities, usually more than 1000 miles.

Line-Haul: The movement of freight over the tracks of a transportation line from one town or city to another town or city (not a switching service).

Liner:  The word "liner" is derived from the term "line traffic," which denotes operation along definite routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules. A liner thus is a vessel that engages in this kind of transportation, which usually involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from bulk cargo.

Liquidate: To settle the accounts and distribute the assets of a business in bringing it to an end.

Liquidation:  The finalization of a customs entry.

Live Stock Car: A special freight car for handling of livestock.

Live Stock Waybill: A waybill used for shipments of livestock.

Livestock:  Common farm animals.

Lo/Lo (Lift-On/Lift-Off):  Denotes the method by which cargo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel, which in this case is by the use of a crane.

Load Factor:  Capacity sold as against capacity available and expressed as a percentage.

Local Rate: A rate applying be­tween stations located on the same transportation line.

Local Station: A station located only on one transportation line.

Local Tariff: A tariff containing applicable only between stations located on the same transportation line.

Local Train: A train that stops at all stations on its route.

Local Waybill: A waybill cover­ing the movement of freight over a single transportation line.

Log Book: A book carried and kept by truck drivers contain­ing daily records of hours, routes, etc. traveled.

Logistics:  1) Is the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of raw materials, in­ process inventory, finished goods, services and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements; 2) Involves the creation of time, place, quantity, form and possession utilities within and among firms and individuals through strategic management, infrastructure management and resource management with the goal of creating products/services that satisfy customers through the attainment of value; and 3) The process of strategically managing the movement, flow and storage of materials, products and related information from any point in the manufacturing process to the consumer market. 

Logistics Channel: The way a company moves and manages materials through their manufacturing and distribution processes to customers. In other words, Supply Chain + Distribution Channel = Logistics Channel. 

Logistics Management:  The efficient and cost-effective management of the physical movement of goods from supply points to final sale and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various intermediate storage points.  

Logistics Services: Includes transportation, distribution, cross docking and product flow‑through, inventory management, customer service, freight payment and auditing, and logistics information reporting. 

Long Ton: 2,240 pounds.

Long-and-Short Haul Clause: The Fourth Section of the In­terstate Commerce Act prohibits Part I and Part III carriers from charging more for a shorter than for a longer haul over the same route, except by special permission of the inter­state Commerce Commission.

Longshoremen: A person em­ployed about the wharves of a port to load and unload vessels.

Loose: Not packed.

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MERCOSUR:  A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members.

MM:  Mercantile Marine.

M/R:  Mate's Receipt.

M/T:  Metric Ton (2204 Ibs).

mt.:  Empty.

M/V or MV:  Motor Vessel.

MW:  Minimum Weight Factor.

Management Reporting: The providing of performance measurement information, such as on third party services being provided, in the form of standard and/or customized reports to client management.

Mandamus: A writ issued by a court requiring that specific things be done.

Manifest:  A list of the goods being transported by a carrier.

Manifest:  A document giving the description of a ship's cargo or the contents of a car or truck.

Maquiladora:  A foreign plant operating under an in-bond program whereby components may be shipped into Mexico duty-free for assembly and subsequent re-export. Maquiladora plants are also known as Twin Plants.

Marine Insurance: Insurance against loss or damage to property while in transit by water.

Maritime Administration (MARAD):  A U.S. government agency, while not actively involved in vessel operation that administers laws for maintenance of merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.

Maritime: Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty have jurisdiction over, concurrently with the courts of common law.

Mark:  (See Consignee Mark, Markings, Port Marks)

Marked Capacity: The carrying capacity of a car as marked or stenciled thereon.

Markings:  The physical markings on a product indicating the country of origin where the article was produced.

Marks: Letters, numbers and/or characters placed on a package for purposes of identification.

Material Flow Management: The management of the movement and storage of materials commencing with the initial transportation of a material or component from a supplier and terminating with the final delivery and receipt of the material or component. Also know as "value-added inventory flow management."

Mate's Receipt:  Receipt of cargo by the vessel, signed by the mate (similar to a dock receipt).

Maximum Rate: The highest rate that may be charged.

Measurement Cargo: A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of measurement.

Measurement Ton:  The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter it occupies.

Memorandum Bill of Lading: The duplicate copy of a bill of lading.

Merchandise Car: A car containing several less‑than‑carload shipments.

Meter Measurement: One of the standard measurements one meter equals 39.37 inches.

Metric Ton: A ton of 2,204.6 pounds.

Mile: 5,280 feet.

Mileage Allowance: An allowance, based on distance, made by carriers to owners of privately owned freight cars.

Mileage Rate: Rates applicable according to distance.

Mileage Tariff: A tariff containing rates applicable according to distance.

Mileage: Distance in miles.

Milling in Transit: The stopping of grain, lumber, etc., at point located between the points of origin and destination, for the purpose of milling.

Min. B/L:  Minimum Bill of Lading.

Minimum Carload Weight: The least weight at which a ship­ment is handled at a carload rate.

Minimum Charge: The Ieast charge for which a shipment will be handled.

Minimum Rate: The lowest rate that may be charged.

Minimum Truckload Weight: The weight at which a ship­ment is handled at a truckload rate.

Mixed Carload Rate: A rate ap­plicable to a carload of differ­ent articles in a single consign­ment.

Mixed Carload: A carload of dif­ferent articles in a single con­signment.

Modified Procedure: A method of handling formal complaints before the I.C.C. under which part of the testimony is handled by correspondence in the form of sworn statements.

More-than-one-Consignment Way­bill: A waybill used for more than one consignment of freight.

Motor Carrier Act, 1935: An Act of Congress providing regulation of motor vehicle when for hire.

Motor Vehicle: Any vehicle, ma­chine, tractor, trailer or semi­trailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used upon the highways in the trans­portation of passengers or prop­erty.

Mullen Test: A device to test the strength of fibreboard and similar material used as a substitute for wood in making ship­ping containers.

Multimodal Logistics: The process of selecting multimodal carriers (motor, rail, air or ocean internationally or domestically) according to specific freight origin, freight destination and volume; negotiate rates with all carriers and manage contracts to ensure stabilized rates.

Multimodal: Using one or more modes of transportation to ship goods.

Mushroom Line: A transporta­tion line operating mushroom steamers.

Mushroom Steamer: A vessel that has no established operat­ing policy and whose service is inaugurated on short notice to and from advantageous ports.

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NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement):  A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.

NMFC:  National Motor Freight Classification.

n.e.m.:  Not elsewhere mentioned.

n.e.s.:  Not elsewhere specified.

NOE:  Not Otherwise Enumerated.

NOHP:  Not Otherwise Herein Provided.

NOI:  Not Otherwise Indicated.

NOIBN:  Not Otherwise Indicated By Number; Not Otherwise Indicated By Name.

NOS:  Not Otherwise Specified.

NT:  Net Tons.

NVOCC:  (See Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier.)

National Carrier:  A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.

Negligence: Failure to exercise the degree of care the law de­mands.

Nested Solid:  When three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 1/4 inch.

Nested:  When three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 33-1/3% of its height.

Nested: Packed one within m­other.

Net Terms:  Free of charters' commission.

Net Ton: 2,000 pounds.

Net Ton-Mile: The movement of a ton of freight one-mile.

Net Tonnage (Vessel): A vessel's gross tonnage minus deductions for space occupied by accommodations for crew, machinery for navigation, the engine room, and fuel.  A vessel's net tonnage  represents the space available for the accommodation of passengers and the stowage of cargo.  A ton of cargo, in most instances, occupies less than 100 cubic feet.  The tonnage of cargo carried is usually greater than the gross tonnage. (See Dead­weight Tonnage.)

Net Weight (Actual Net Weight):  The weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.

Net Weight: (a) The weight of an article clear of packing and container; and (b) As applied to a carload, the weight of the en­tire contents of the car.

Network Analysis: Analyzing a company's current logistics network to determine if it can achieve and support the service and logistics cost levels the Company is striving for.

No Objection Certificate:  A document provided by scheduled or national airlines of many countries declaring no objection to a proposed charter flight operated by another airline. It is often demanded by government authorities before they grant permission for a charter flight to take place.

No Objection Fee:  A sum of money normally paid by a charter airline to a scheduled airline in order that it waives its right of objection to its government, thus allowing a charter to take place. The amount is usually a fixed percentage of the gross cost of a charter. Tantamount to a bribe, this is common practice in the Middle East and Africa.

Non-Agency Station: A station at which a transportation line has no agent.

Non-Competitive Traffic: Traffic in the movement of which there is no competition between transportation lines.

Non-Scheduled Flight:  (See Scheduled Flight.)

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC):  An FMC-Licensed cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port.

Notice: Information given of an act done; such as the placement of a car.

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OD:  Outside Diameter.

ODS (Operating Differential Subsidy):  A payment to an American-flag carrier by the U.S. federal government to offset the difference in operating costs between U.S. and foreign vessels.

O&R:  Ocean and Rail.

O.R. Det.:  Owner's Risk of Deterioration.

O.r.b.:  Owner's risk of breakage.

O/N:  Order Notify; Own Name.

O/o:  Order of.

O/R:  Owner's Risk.

ORF:  Owner' Risk of Fire or Freezing.

ORL:  Owner's Risk of Leakage.

ORW:  Owner's Risk of Becoming Wet.

OS&D:  Over, Short and Damaged.

Off-Line:  An airline that sells in a market to which it does not operate. An off-line carrier will use another operator to link with its network.

On-time Delivery: The process of timing logistics so that materials or products arrive at the appointed time.

Open Account:  A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment such as a note, mortgage, or other formal written evidence of indebtedness.

Open Insurance Policy: A form of insurance covering shipments for a specified time or a stated value and not limited to a single shipment.

Open Policy:  A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; e.g., it provides protection for all of an exporter's shipments afloat or in transit within a specified geographical trade area for an unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance company. It is "open" because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time. This usually is shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate.

Operating Expenses: The cost incident to the actual handling of traffic.

Operating Ratio: The relation of operating expenses to gross receipts.

Order Fulfillment: The processing of orders, allocating inventory, ordering from the internal or external supplier, scheduling the shipment, reporting order status and initiating shipment.

Order-Notify: (See Bill of Lading, Order-Notify.)

Outbound Logistics: The movement of materials and products from a company's manufacturing plant or storage facility.

Outbound Transportation: Any freight being transported from a shipping location.

Over Freight: Freight separated from its waybill and bearing no identifying marks.  (See Astray and Excess Freight.)

Overage: Freight in excess of the quantity specified on the bill of lading.

Overcharge: To charge more than the applicable rate as published in the carriers' tariff.

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PA:  (See Particular Average)

PAIRED (Port of Arrival Immediate Release and Enforcement Determination):  A U.S. Customs program that allows entry documentation for an import shipment to be filed at one location, usually an inland city, while the merchandise is cleared by customs at the port of entry, normally a seaport. May be ineffective with certain types of high-risk cargoes, such as quota-regulated textiles or shipments from drug production regions. Cities where there is a natural flow of cargo are actually "paired" in the program; e.g., Atlanta, an inland city, is linked with Savannah, a seaport.

P. D. Car (Permanent Dunnage Car):  A boxcar equipped with dunnage.

PW:  Packed Weight.

Package Car: A car loaded with several less‑than‑carload shipments destined for distant points and moving in through fast freight trains.

Package Freight: Merchandise shipped in less‑than‑carload quantities.

Packing List: A detailed specifi­cation as to goods packed.

Pallet:  A load-carrying platform to which loose cargo is secured before placing aboard the aircraft.

Pallet: A small portable plat­form for holding material for storage or transportation.

Panama Canal Act: An Act of Congress relating to water trans­portation, particularly to the ownership by railroads of water lines with which they compete.

Paper Rate: A published rate under‑which no traffic moves.

Paperless Release:  Under ABI, certain commodities from low-risk countries not designated for examination may be released through an ABI-certified broker without the actual submission of documentation.

Parcel Receipt: Receipt given by a steamship company for a par­cel shipment.

Parcel Shipment: A small package restricted as to value, generally samples of goods or ad­vertising matter.  (A term used in export and import trade.)

Part Charter:  Where part of an airline's scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.

Part Load Charter:  Where a part of an aircraft's load is discharged at one destination and a part of it at another. This is distinct from a split charter where a number of consignments are carried to the same destination. Inbound, part loads are treated as single entity charters under the regulations in most countries.

Participating Carrier (Tariff): A transportation line that is a party, under concurrence, to a tariff issued by another trans­portation line or by a tariff-publishing agent.

Particular Average (PA):  Partial loss or damage to goods.

Peddler Car: A car handled by carriers for less‑than‑carload shipments from only one con­signor over a specified route, the shipments being delivered at points along the route direct from the car to the various con­signees.

Pendente Lite: While suit is in progress.

Per Annum: By the year.

Per Centum: By the hundred.

Per Contra: Contrariwise.  On the contrary.

Per Diem Charge: A charge made by one transportation line against another for the use of its cars.  The charge is based on a fixed rate per day.

Per Diem: By the day.

Per Se: By and of itself.

Per: (a) By; (b) By means of; and  (c) According to.

Perils of the Sea:  Fortuitous accidents or casualties peculiar to transportation on navigable water, such as sinking, collision of vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.

Perishable Freight: Freight sub­ject to decay or deterioration.

Perishables:  Any cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation. This usually refers to fresh fruit and vegetables.

Permits: Authority or permit granted by the I.C.C. to contract carriers by motor vehicle or water and freight forwarders to operate in interstate commerce.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate:  A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.

Pick‑up Allowance: An allow­ance made by carrier to con­signor or consignee for delivery of freight to a pick‑up from carriers terminal in lieu of such service being performed by the carrier.

Piggy‑back: The transportation of truck trailers and containers on railroad flat‑cars.

Pilferage:  As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery-the taking of small parts of a shipment-as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired it must be added to the policy.

Pilferage: (See theft).  Feloni­ously breaking into containers and taking and removing prop­erty of others.

Pilot: A person whose office or occupation is to steer ships, par­ticularly along a coast, or into and out of a harbor.

Pilotage: (a) The duty or office of a pilot; and (b) The charges for navigating a vessel in and out of a harbor and/or through a channel.

Pipe Line: A line of pipe used for tonnage or the draft of a vessel.  The charges may be based on the transporting liquids, principally crude oil.

Pivot Weights:  That weight of a ULD above which a higher tariff applies. In effect, it is an incentive to maximize cargo density.

Place of Rest:  This term, as used in the Containerized Cargo Rules, means the location of the floor, dock, platform, or doorway at the CFS to which cargo is first delivered by the shipper or agent thereof.

Place:  A particular street address or other designation of a factory, store, warehouse, place of business, private residence, construction camp, or the like at a point.

Plaintiff: One who commences action in court to obtain redress for injury sustained.

Pleadings: The written allega­tion of what is affirmed or de­nied by the parties to a case before the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Point of Origin: The station at which a shipment is received by a transportation line from the shipper.

Point:  A particular city, town, village, or other community or area, which is treated as a unit for the application of rates.

Pool Distribution: Pooling of product by destination city or region for consolidation into outbound truckloads; especially for breaking down for distribution at destination to multiple delivery points.

Port Authority:  A government body (city, county, or state), which in international shipping maintains various airports and/or ocean cargo pier facilities, transit, sheds, loading equipment, or warehouses for air cargo. It has the power to levy dockage and wharfage charges, landing fees, and other costs.

Port Charge: A charge made for services performed at ports.

Port Mark: The final destination, not the port of entry, except when such port is the final des­tination (a term used in foreign shipping).

Port Marks:  An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of destination that is placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.

Port of Call: A port at which a steamer discharges or receives traffic.

Port of Discharge:  A port where a vessel is off-loaded and cargo discharged.

Port of Entry:  A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.

Port of Entry: A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.  Ports of Entry are officially designated by the government.

Port of Loading:  A port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel, lashed, and stowed.

Port Warden's Fee: A charge made at a port for a survey of cargo, hull, valuation, measure­ment, etc., of goods or ship.

Port: (a) A harbor or haven where ships may anchor; and (b) The left side of a ship.

Port-to-Port: From one port to another port.

Postponement: The process of postponing the final assembly of usually higher value goods in an effort to customize the final product for a particular customer. Postponement is used frequently in the computer industry where manufacturers pass the final assembly responsibilities down the supply chain to distributors or logistics providers.

Potato Car: A car especially adapted to the movement of potatoes.

Power of Attorney:  A document that authorizes a customs broker to sign all customs documents on behalf of an importer or exporter.

Power of Attorney: (a) Authority to do or forbear derived by one person from another; and (b) Authority granted by a transportation line to an agent to issue tariffs, concurrences, etc., for its account.

Prejudice: Subjecting one to an unreasonable disadvantage or prejudice in relation to the treatment accorded a competitor.

Prepaid Freight:  Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in the currency of the country of export or they may be billed collect for payment by the consignee in his local currency. On shipments to some countries, however, freight charges must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import or rules of steamship companies or airlines.

Prepaid: A term denoting that transportation charges have been or are to be paid at the point of shipment.

Prepay Station: A station to which the transportation charges on shipments must be prepaid­, generally a non-agency station.

Prepay: Pay before or in advance.

Pre-Slung Cargo:  Cargo shipped already in a cargo sling or net, such as coffee in bags or coconut shells. It is usually prepared and loaded at the pier, ready for the vessel's arrival and subsequent loading.

Prima Facie:  A Latin term frequently encountered in foreign trade that means "on first appearance." When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparent good order and condition" and this is said by the courts to constitute prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.

Prima facie: (a) At first view; and (b) A showing of facts sufficient to meet or overcome the bur­den of proof.  When the party having that burden establishes a prima facie case the burden of proceedings shifts to his op­ponent.

Primate: In the early days of shipping, it was customary to add to ocean freight rates 5% to 10% "primage" as an allowance to ship's officer for safe stowage, handling and delivery of cargo.  The practice of adding primage to ocean rates is obsolete, but when charged it usually accrues to the ship instead of being dis­tributed to the ship's officers as formerly.

Private Carriage: Type of transportation service where the owner of the means of transportation is also the owner of the goods being transported.

Private Carrier: Any person other than a common or con­tract carrier who transports in interstate commerce property of which such party is the owner when such transportation is in furtherance of any commercial enterprises.

Private Cars: Cars whose owner­ship is vested in a person or company not engaged primarily in common carrier service.

Private Fleet Management: Comprehensive transportation management of the customer‑owned assets.

Private Siding: A sidetrack owned or leased by an individ­ual or firm.

Pro Number:  A number assigned by the carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred to.

Pro Number: Pro is the abbreviation of the word progressive and is usually prefixed to an Agent's record numbers on freight bills, etc.

Pro rata: In proportion.

Procedure (I.C.C.): The rules and principles established for the conduct of cases before the Interstate Commerce Commis­sion.

Proforma:  When used with the title of a document, the term refers to an informal document presented in advance of the arrival or preparation of the required document, in order to satisfy a customs requirement.

Prohibited Articles: Articles which will not be handled.

Proof of Delivery (POD):  The delivery receipt copy of a freight bill indicating the name of the person who signed for a package with the date and time of delivery.

Proportional Rate: A rate specifically published to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate.  A rate published from New York to Chicago to apply only on traffic destined to points be­yond Chicago would be a pro­portional rate.  (See Basing Rate.)

Proportional Tariff: A tariff con­taining only proportional rates.

Protest:  U.S. Customs Form 19 allows for a refund of an overpayment of duty if filed within 90 days of liquidation.

Proxinto: In the next month.

Public Service Commission: A name usually given to a State body having control of or regu­lating public utilities.

Publication: Making public in the manner required by the Act of tariffs, circulars, billing instruc­tions, guide books, territorial directories, classifications, exception sheets, etc., which in any way affect the handling of traffic.

Publishing Agent: A person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs of rates, rules and regulations for their account.

Pull Distribution: Structuring manufacturing, inventory and shipping scheduling to react to customer demand and allow demand to determine volume, ordering and delivery schedules.

Push Distribution: A distribution strategy that consists of stocking distribution centers, retail, and sometimes use points in anticipation of an increase in future demand. It implies manufacture and distribution at the producer's convenience and that the availability of the product will cause the buyer to buy more. 

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Quasi: As if;nearly,as though.

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- R -

R&C:  Rail and Canal. 

R/C:  Reconsigned.

REFG:  Refrigerating; Refrigeration.

r.&c.c.:  Riots and civil commotions.

r.c.c.&s.:  Riots, civil commotions, and strikes.

Rail and Water: Partly by rail and partly by water transportation.

Railroad Bond: A bond issued by a railroad for the purpose financing improvements, extensions, etc., and generally secured by mortgages on tracks, rolling stock and other property.

Railway Labor Act: An Act providing for adjustment of dis­putes between carriers and employees, approved May 20, 1926.

Rate Basis: A formula of the spe­cific factors or elements that control the making of a rate.

Rate Breaking Point: Point on which rates are made or at which the rate is divided.

Rate Scale: A table of rates graduated according to dis­tances or zones.

Rate-making Lines: The transportation lines which control the making of rates from one point to another point by reason of their geographical location.

Real-time Business Data: Allowing customers to control their logistics functions by whichever means best supports their business processes on a real-time basis.

Reasonableness (I.C.C.): A re­quirement under common law and by statute that a rate shall not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit.

Rebate:  A deduction taken from a set payment or charge. Because a rebate is given after payment of the full amount has been made, it differs from a discount that is deducted in advance of the payment. In foreign trade, a full or partial rebate may be given on import duties paid on goods that are later re-exported.

Receiver's Certificate: A certifi­cate issued by a receiver, when authorized by the Court, to pro­vide funds for equipment and construction work.

Reciprocal Switching: An ar­rangement between carriers un­der which each switches cars to or from the interchange with the other when the switching carrier does not receive a line haul.

Reciprocity:  A practice by which governments extend similar concessions to one another.

Reconsignment: See Diversion.

Red Label: A label required on shipments of articles of an in­flammable character.

Reefer:  A refrigerated trailer or railcar for hauling perishables.

Refining in Transit: The stopping of shipments of sugar, oil, etc., at a point located between the points of origin and destina­tion to be refined.

Refrigeration: The protection of perishable freight by ice.

Refrigerator Car: A car equipped with icing and ventilating facil­ities for protecting perishable freight.

Refund: An amount returned to consignor or consignee as a re­sult of carrier having collected charge in excess of the legally applicable charges.

Regs.:  Registered Tonnage.

Related Points of Destination: A group of points the rates to which are made the same as or with relation to rates to other points in the group.

Related Points of Origin: A group of points the rates from which are made the same as or with relation to rates from other points in the group.

Released Rate: A rate applied subject to limitations with respect to the liability of carriers in case of loss of and/or damage to a shipment.

Relief Claim: A request made by an agent of a transportation line to clear his accounts of out­standing bills.

Reparation: The redress of a jury, or amends for a wrong that has been done.

Reshipment: Goods reshipped tin­der conditions that do not make the act subject to the reconsignment rules and charges of the carrier.  (See Reconsignment.)

Restricted Articles: Articles that are handled only under certain conditions.

Retaliation:  An action taken by a country to restrain imports from another country that has increased a tariff or imposed other measures that adversely affect the first country's exports.

Retroactive: The application of law, rule, tariff provision, etc., to a time before the law or rule became effective.

Revenue Waybill: A  waybill showing the amount of charges due on a shipment.

Reverse Logistics: The process by which any product is returned to its maker for credit, reworking, recouping, etc. Organizing the flow of product returns and recycling material.

Ro/Ro (Roll-on/Roll-Off) Vessel:  A ship designed to accommodate cargo that is rolled on and rolled off. Some Ro/Ro vessels can accommodate containers and/or break bulk cargo. A Ro/Ro Vessel can be self-sustaining.

Road-bed: The foundation on which the track of a railroad is placed.

Rough Material Rates and Ratio: Shipments of rough lumber, or unfinished article‑of forest prod­ucts, shipped into a mill point at local rate, with the privilege of reshipment of finished product from mill point via the inbound carrier, provided the outbound weight is a specified percentage of the inbound weight of the rough material, on basis of the local rate on the finished prod­uct from the mill point.  The inbound charges are then re­duced to basis of the rough ma­terial rate, which averages ap­proximately 50% of the local rate assessed.

Route:  An established air passage, from the point of departure to the terminating station.

Route: (a) The course or direc­tion that a shipment moves; and (b) To designate the course or di­rection a shipment shall move.

Royalty:  A charge on charter flights levied by some governments before traffic rights are granted. Sometimes called a "no objection fee." It is usually a fixed proportion of a total charter value

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SCR (Specified Commodity Rate):  A rate applied to narrowly specified commodities and usually granted on relatively large shipments. Theoretically, it is of limited time duration.

SED:  (See Shipper's Export Declaration)

S&FA:  Shipping and Forwarding Agent.

SIP (Solicitud de Inspección Pre-Embarque):  A pre-inspection order.

SIT:  Stopped in Transit.

SL&C:  Shipper's Load and Count.

SL&T:  Shipper's Load and Tally.

S/N:  Shipping Note.

SOL:  Ship Owner's Liability.

SR&CC:  Strikes, riots, and civil commotions.

SR:  Shipping Receipt.

SS:  Steamship; Steam-powered Ship (steam-driven turbines).

S. tn.:  Short ton.

SW:  Shipper's Weights.

Sailing Day: A term used by transportation lines to designate schedules for receiving freight destined to certain points.

Salvage:  The rescue of goods from loss at sea or by fire. Also, goods so saved, or payment made or due for their rescue.

Salvage: (a) A reward granted for the saving of property and life at sea; and (b) The goods or ves­sel saved.

Scale of Rates: Numerous rates adjusted with relation to each other.

Schedule B:  Refers to ''Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities exported from the U.S.A." This is being replaced under the Harmonized System.

Schedule: (See Tariff.) A publica­tion filed with the I.C.C. con­taining minimum charges, rules and regulations of contract operations of motor carriers.

Scheduled Flight:  Any service that operates under a set timetable.

Scow: A hollow, flat‑bottomed boat used for transporting sand, gravel and other freight in bulk.

Script Sheet: A form of state­ment, carried by truck driver showing essential details of all shipments loaded in his truck.  A transcript of the lading.

Seal (Car): A device for fasten­ing or locking the doors of cars.

Sectional Tariff: A tariff containing two or more sections which, in accordance with the rules of the tariff, may or may not be used, alternately.  (See Alternative Tariff.)

Sector:  The distance between two ground points within a route.

Self-Sustaining:  A vessel that has its own cranes and equipment mounted on board for loading and unloading. Used in ports where shore cranes and equipment are lacking.

Semi-trailer: A vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon, or is carried by, a towing vehicle.

Sequencing: The act of placing items in a load in the order in which they will be used on a production line.

Service Contract:  A contract between a shipper and an ocean carrier of conference, in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a minimum quantity of cargo over a fixed time period.

Service:  The defined, regular pattern of calls made by a carrier in the pick-up and discharge of cargo.

Set Up: A term denoting that an article is put together in its complete state, not knocked down.

Set-Up:  Articles in their assembled condition.

Ship Demurrage: A charge for a delay to a steamer beyond a stipulated period.  (See Lay Day.)

Shipchandler: A person who deals in cordage, sailcloth, tackling and other equipment of a vessel.

Shipment:  Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.

Shipper:  Term used to describe an exporter (usually a manufacturing company).

Shipper's Export Declaration (SED):  A form required by the U.S. Treasury Department and completed by a shipper showing the value, weight, consignee, and destination of export shipments as well as the Schedule B identification number.

Shipper's Export Declaration: A form required by the Treasury Department and filled out by a shipper showing the value, weight, consignee, destination, etc., of shipments to be ex­ported.

Shipper's Load and Count: A term denoting that the contents of a car were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verified by the transporta­tion line.

Shipping Act:  Created in 1916 and revised in 1984, the Shipping Act is a comprehensive legislative act defining the U.S. ocean freight industry. This legislation defines the rules and regulations governing the business practices of steamship companies, non-vessel operating carriers, and freight forwarders.

Shipping Day: (See Sailing Day.)

Shipping Order: Instructions of shippers to carrier for forward­ing all goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.

Shipping Permit: Authority issued by a transportation line permitting the acceptance and forwarding of goods against the movement of which an embargo has been placed.

Shipping Pound: The gross weight of a package of silk, including the spool, bobbin, warp beam or cone on which it is wound.

Ship's Manifest:  An instrument in writing containing a list of the shipments constituting the ship's cargo.

Ship's Manifest: (See Vessel's Manifest.)

Ship's Tackle:  All rigging, etc., utilized on a ship to load or discharge cargo.

Ship's Tackle: The rigging, blocks and other paraphernalia used on a ship for hoisting freight.

Shipside: Alongside a vessel.

Short of Destination: Before reaching final destination.

Short Ton: 2,000 pounds.

Shortage: A deficiency in quantity shipped.

Short-Shipped:  Cargo manifested but not loaded.

Side-track Agreement: Contract between railroad and shipper establishing rights as to use and operation of a siding.

Side-track: A short track extending alongside connecting at both ends with another track.

Sight Draft:  A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee. (Compare with Date Draft and Time Draft.)

Single Consignment Waybill: A waybill used for a single shipment.

Single Entry Charter:  A non-scheduled flight carrying the cargo of one shipper.

Site:  A particular platform or location for loading or unloading at a place.

Sixteenth Section Order: An order issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission in pursuance of Section 16 of the Act to Regulate Commerce.

Sling: A contrivance into which freight is placed to be hoisted into or out of a ship.

Special Service Tariff: A tariff containing charges and/or rules governing switching, storage, demurrage, reconsignment, diversion, etc.

Split Charter:  Where a number of consignments from different shippers are carried on the same non-scheduled aircraft. Under U.K. regulations a non-scheduled flight chartered by a single forwarder or agent on behalf of a number of shippers is still classified as a split charter. Under U.S. regulations, a forwarder-chartered flight is classified as a single entity although it can consolidate.

Spotting (Car): The placing of car where required to be loaded or unloaded.

Spread: The earnings of a third party when the parties agree that at least some of the third party logistics' income from services will be derived from his billing the freight to the billee at a higher rate than he must pay the carrier for the carrier's freight bill. This is by far the most common method of reimbursement for truck and intermodal brokerage service. (See "Commission" and "Fee for Service.")

Spur-track: A short track ex­tending out from or alongside, and connecting only at one end with another track.

Standard Density: The compression of flat bales of cotton to standard density of approximately 22½ pounds per cubic foot.

Standard Forms: Forms adopted for general use with a view to uniformity.

Standard Gage (Gauge): The distance between the rails of a railroad, 4 ft. 8½in.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC):  A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade.

Standard Rate: A rate established via direct routes from one point to another in relation to which the rates via other routes between the same points are made.  (See Differential Rate.)

Standard Route: The line or lines that maintain standard rates.

Starboard: The right side of a ship.

State Toll: A charge made by a State for the use of its highways or other facilities for handling traffic.

Stated Refrigeration Charge: A fixed charge per car, per pack­age, per 100 pounds or per ton of freight, for refrigeration from shipping point to destination or for a portion of the trip.

Static Routes: The act of designing specific fixed routes for carriers to follow when making pick-ups and deliveries. Also know as "Steady Routes."

Station Order Car: A car loaded by a shipper with several less ­than-carload shipments destined to different points along the same route, the shipments being loaded in destination order.  A Station Order Car is placed into a train without its contents being rehandled at the transpor­tation line's terminals at point of shipment.  (See Trap Car.)

Status Quo: The existing condition or state of things.

Statute of Limitations: A statute law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.

Statutory Notice: The period of time required by law for giving notice of changes to be made in tariffs.

Steamship Agent:  A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting on behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his principals.

Steamship Freight Contract: Agreement between steamship and shipper for space and rate.

Steamship Line:  A company usually having the following departments:  vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates, and sales. The company can maintain its own in-country offices to handle regional sales, operations, or other matters, or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing the same. Some lines have liner offices in several regions and appointed agents in others.

Stet: Let it stand.

Stevedore: A person having charge of the loading and unloading of boats.

Stopping in Transit: The holding of a shipment by the carrier on order of the owner after the transportation movement has started and before it is completed.

Storage in Transit: The stopping of freight traffic at point located between the point of origin and destination to be stored and reforwarded at a later date.

Storage Track: A track oil which cars are placed when not in service, or when held awaiting disposition.

Storage: A charge made on property stored.

Store Door Delivery: The movement of goods to the consignee's place of business customarily applied to movement by truck.

Stowage:  The placing of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries.

Strikes, Riots, and Civil Commotions:  An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikers, locked-out workmen, persons' participation in labor disturbances, and riots of various kinds. The ordinary marine insurance policy does not cover this risk. Coverage against it can be added only by endorsement.

Subpoena: A document requiring that the one to whom it is issued appear to give testimony.

Subrogate: To put in the place of another.

Subsidy:  An economic benefit granted by a government to producers of goods or services, often to strengthen their competitive position. Sue & Labor Cause:  A provision in marine insurance obligating the assured to do things necessary after a loss to prevent further loss and to act in the best interests of the insurer.

Supplement (Tariff): A publication containing additions to and /or changes in a tariff.

Supply Chain Logistics: The act of managing the flow of materials and information through the entire logistics pipeline. There is an assumption of a higher degree of efficiency.

Supra: A term denoting that a case or ruling has been previ­ously cited in full.

Surcharge: A charge above the usual or customary charge.

Surety Bond:  A bond insuring against loss or damage or for the completion of obligations.

Surety Company:  An insurance company.

Surtax: An additional or extra tax.

Switch Engine: An engine used in the service of switching cars.

Switch Order: An order to move a car from one place to another within switching limits.

Switch: (a) A connection between two lines of track to permit cars or trains to pass from one track to the other; and (b) To move cars from one place to another within switching limits.

Switching Charge: The charge made for moving cars within switching limits.  (See Transportation Rate.)

Switching Limits: The area within which cars are moved under switching rules and charges.

Switching: The moving of cars from one place to another within switching limits.

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TBL:  (See Bill of Lading, Through)

TEU:  A twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.1m). A standard unit for counting containers of various lengths and for describing container ship or terminal capacity. A standard 40' container equals 2 TEUs.

THC (Terminal Handling Charge):  A charge made for certain handling services performed at terminals.

TIB (Temporary Importation Under Bond):  A U.S. Customs' temporary admission into the U.S.A. under a conditional bond for articles not imported for sale or for sale on approval.

TL:  Truckload.

Tally Sheet:  A list of incoming and outgoing cargo checked by the tally clerk on the dock.

Tank Car: A car used for trans­porting liquid in bulk.

Tap Line: A short railroad usu­ally owned or controlled by the industries which it serves and “tapping” (connecting with) a trunk line.

Tare Weight:  The weight of packing and containers without the goods to be shipped.

Tare Weight: (a) The weight of a container and the material used for packing; and (b) As applied to a carload, the weight of the car exclusive of its contents.

Tariff Circular (I.C.C.): A cir­cular issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission pre­scribing rules and regulations to be observed by transportation lines in publishing tariffs.

Tariff:  A general term for any listing of rates or charges. The tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of international transportation companies operating on sea, land, and in the air; tariffs of international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the customs tariffs of the various countries that list goods that are duty free and those subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs duties.

Tariff: Railroad: Under Part I of 1.C.C. Act.  A schedule of rates charged, together with governing rules and regulations.

Team-track: A track on which cars are placed for the use of the public in loading or unloading freight.

Temperature Controlled Cargo:  Any cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.

Tender: The offer of goods for transportation, or the offer to place cars for loading or un­loading.

Terminal Carrier: The transpor­tation line making delivery of a shipment at its destination.

Terminal Charge: A charge made for services performed at terminals.

Terminal Switching: The moving of cars originating at and destined to points within yard or switching limits.  (See Line-haul Switching.)

Theft: (See Pilferage) Feloni­ously taking and removing prop­erty with intent to deprive the rightful owner, the taking of the entire container or article.

Third Freedom Right:  Where cargo is carried by an airline from the country in which it is based to a foreign country.

Third Party Logistics:  1) Having the capability to provide customers with alternatives to their current transportation system, ensure that their freight charges are accurate and provide state of the art information pertaining to the transportation of their freight; 2) Consolidation of systems and networks to manage assets for the economic and strategic success of shippers and their customers; 3) A warehouse or logistics facility operated by a company that provides logistics services as its main business and where the facility or a portion of the facility is dedicated to a specific client that has a contractual agreement of more than 30 days with the company. Also known as contract logistics; and 4) A bundling of logistics services-such as transportation, warehousing and distribution support-provided to a manufacturer, retailer or wholesales by an outside provider with whom that manufacturer has a contractual agreement. Also known as "Contract Logistics."

Through Rate: A rate applicable through from point of origin to destination.  A through rate may be either a joint rate or a com­bination of two or more rates.

Through Train: A train that does not stop at all stations on its route.

Time Draft:  A draft that matures in a certain number of days, either from acceptance or the date of the draft.

Title, Passing:  The passing of title to exported goods is determined in large measure by the selling terms and must be clearly specified and understood by both parties.

Tolerance: An allowance made for differences in weights due to variations in scales or inher­ent nature of goods.

Ton:  Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton or a measurement ton.

Ton-Deadweight:  The carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions, and passengers that a vessel can carry.

Ton-Displacement:  The weight of the volume of water that the fully loaded ship displaces.

Ton-Kilometer:  A measure of airline freight capacity.

Ton-mile: (a) A unit used in comparing freight earnings or expenses, the amount earned from or the cost of, hauling a ton of freight one mile; and (b) The movement of a ton of freight one mile.

Tonnage: The number of tons of freight handled.

Total Cost Analysis: A decision‑making approach that considers minimizing total system cost and recognizes the interrelationship of system variables such as transportation, warehousing, inventory and customer service.

Total Outsourcing: The act of delegating a manufacturer's, retailer's or wholesaler's entire logistics function to an outside provider. Total outsourcing is considered to be more strategic than logistics or even contract logistics, because it involves the entire supply chain.

Towage: The charge made for towing a vessel.

Towboat: (See Tugboat.)

Trace: To follow the movement of a shipment.

Tracer: (a) A request upon a transportation line to trace a shipment for the purpose of ex­pediting its movement or estab­lishing delivery; and (b) A request for an answer to a communica­tion or for advice concerning the status of a subject.

Track Storage: A charge made on cars held on carrier's tracks for loading or unloading after the expiration of free time allowed.  The charge is generally made in addition to demurrage charges.

Track: The rails and ties form­ing the permanent way of a railroad.

Trackage Right: Right obtained by one carrier to operate its trains over the tracks of anther carrier.

Tracking:  A carrier's system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.

Tractor: A vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load so drawn.

Trade:  A term used to define a geographic area or specific route served by carriers.

Traffic Management: The staffing and management of a company's traffic department, whether shipper or carrier. In third party logistics it is typically the shipper's department as carrier traffic management is one of the carrier firm's core competencies.

Traffic: Persons and property carried by transportation lines.

Trailer: A vehicle without mo­tive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and so con­structed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle.

Train-mile: The movement of a train one-mile.

Tramp Line: A transportation line operating tramp steamers.

Tramp Steamer: A steamer which does not operate under any regular schedule from one port to another, but calls at any port where a cargo may be ob­tained.

Tramp:  A vessel that does not operate along a definite route on a fixed schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.

Transaction Load Movement:   Provide load-by-load movement of a customer's freight from its shipping floor to its customer's receiving door. It assumes an auction like process of routing freight with many carriers. Usually contrasted to relationship building and management with fewer, more focused partner carriers.

Transit Privilege: A service granted on a shipment en route, such as milling, compressing, refining, etc.

Transit Rate: A rate restricted in its application to traffic which has been or will be milled, stored or otherwise specially treated in transit.

Transport Index:  The number expressing the maximum radiation level in a package or ULD.

Transport: To move traffic from one place to another.

Transportation Logistics: The process of moving materials from one point to another, whether by air, rail, road, water or pipeline.

Transportation Rate: The rate charged for a line-haul.  (See Switching Charge.)

Transportation: The movement of traffic from one place to another.

Trans-ship: To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, particularly from a rail to a water carrier or vice versa.

Transshipment:  The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. Because the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise is likely to cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.

Trap Car: (a) A car loaded by shipper with several less-than­ carload shipments for one consignee.  (See Station Order Car.)

Tri-level Car: A three-level freight car used for transporting auto­mobiles.

Truckload:  Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.

Trunk Line: A transportation line operating over an extensive territory.

Trust Receipt:  The release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer for manufacturing or sales purposes in which the bank retains title to the merchandise.

Tugboat: A small boat used to tow or move other boats, lighters, barges, etc.

Twin Plant:  See Maquiladora.

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UKACC:  United Kingdom Air Cargo Club.

ULD (Unit Load Device):  A pallet or container for freight.

U. S. Consular Invoice: A docu­ment required on merchandise imported into United States.

Unclaimed Freight: Freight that has not been called for by the consignee or owner.

Unclean Bill of Lading:  (See Bill of Lading, Unclean.)

Undercharge: To charge less than the proper amount.

Undue Discrimination: Discrimination greater than is warranted by the circumstances.

Uniform Commercial Code:  The Uniform Commercial Code, or Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits ICC Publication No. 500, was first established and published in 1933 by the International Chamber of Commerce. Revisions were made in 1951, 1962, 1974, 1983, and 1993. The code defines documentation standards to be followed by international banks when negotiating letters of credit. The code is binding, and seeks to define a worldwide standard applicable to all involved in international trade, exchanging goods and money using the international letter of credit.

Uniform Demurrage RuIes: Schedules providing rules and charges for demurrage that are in general used throughout the United States, having the approval of but not prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Unit of Traffic: (a) The aver­age number of tons of freight hauled one mile; and (b) The aver­age number of passengers hauled one mile.

Unitization:  The packing of single or multiple consignments into ULDs or pallets.

Universal Postal Union:  The organization that negotiates international mail charges.

Unlawful: Opposed to law.

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Valuation Charges:  Transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the value of carriers' limits of liability.

Value Chain Solutions: Solutions/programs designed to add value by streamlining and integrating processes, rather than pushing product from the supply side.

Vegetable Car: A car equipped with facilities for safe and proper handling of vegetables.

Ventilate: To admit air.

Ventilated Car: A car equipped with openings at top, sides and or ends to admit air.

Ventilation: The regulation of the circulation of air.

Ves.:  Vessel.

Vessel Ton: One hundred cubic feet.

Vessel's Manifest: Statement of a vessel's cargo (revenue, con­signee, marks, etc.).

Via: By way of.

Visa:  An invoice properly validated by the Minister of Trade in regard to quota entries.

Volume Rate: A rate applicable in connection with a specified volume (weight) of Freight.

Volume Weight:  Used when calculating airfreight when the size of the carton is greater than the average weight. It is calculated by multiplying the length times the width times the height and dividing by 166.

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WA:  (See With Average.)

W&I:  Weighing and Inspection.

w.g.:  Weight guaranteed.

W/M:  Weight and/or Measurement.

WPA:  (See With Particular Average)

WR:  War Risk.

W/R:  Warehouse Receipt.

War Risk Insurance:  Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but currently many exporters cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the U.S.A., war risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marine insurance; it is desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a given loss.

War Risk:  The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government. This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.

Warehouse: A place for the re­ception and storage of goods.

Warehouse Receipt:  A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse identifying the commodities deposited. It is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents in international banking.

Warehouse Receipt: A receipt given for goods placed in a warehouse (may be issued as a negotiable or non-negotiable document.)

Warehouse Services: The complete management and administration of facility, dock and receiving points.

Warehouseman: A person who receives goods and merchandise to be stored in his warehouse for hire.

Warehouse-to-Warehouse:  A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination with certain limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. The warehouse-to-warehouse clause was once extremely important, but marine extension clauses now often override its provisions.

Warehousing: The storing of goods.

Warranties: 

  1. Expressed Warranty:  An agreement written in a marine underwriter's insurance policy that must be strictly and literally complied with. A violation voids the insurance, e.g., trading warranties.
  2. Implied Warranty:  Fundamental conditions implied in a contract of marine insurance are seaworthiness of the vessel and the legality of the venture.  

Weight: 

  1. Gross:  The weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, both internal and external. The total weight as shipped.
  2. Net:  The weight of the goods themselves without the inclusion of any wrapper.
  3. Tare:  The weight of the packaging or container.
  4. Weight/Measurement Ton:  In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton, carrier's option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue. For example, the rate may be quoted on the basis of 2,240 pounds, 40 cubic feet, one metric ton, or one cubic meter.
  5. Weight Ton:  There are three types of weight ton:  the short ton, weighing 2,000 pounds; the long ton, weighing 2,240 pounds; and the metric ton weighing 2,204.68 pounds. The last is frequently quoted for cargo being exported from Europe.

Waybill Destination: The point to which a shipment is waybilled.

Waybill: A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of origin of a shipment, showing the point of origin, des­tination, route, consignor, con­signee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service, and for­warded with the shipment or direct by mail, to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination.

Weather Interference: Natural conditions that render loading or unloading a car im­practicable.

Weight Agreement: An agree­ment between shipper and car­rier, usually following a series of weighing tests, under which carrier agrees to accept shippers’ goods at certain agreed weights.

Weight Cargo: A cargo on which the transportation charge is as­sessed on the basis of weight.

Weight Load Factor:  Payload achieved as against available, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100 percent are rarely achieved.

Weight Sheet: Itemized list fur­nished by shippers to weighing bureaus itemizing articles in each consignment.

Weight, Legal:  Net weight of goods plus the inside packing.

Wet Goods: Liquids.

Wet Lease:  An arrangement for renting an aircraft under which the owner provides crews, ground support equipment, fuel and so on (of dry lease).

Wharfage:  A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against the cargo or a steamship company for use of the pier or dock.

Wharfage: (a) The charge made for handling traffic on a wharf; and (b) The charge made for docking vessels at a wharf.

With Average (WA):  A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.

With Particular Average (WPA):  An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. The damage generally must be caused by seawater, and many terms specify a minimum percentage of damage before payment. It may be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, delivery, leakage, and breakage.

Without Reserve:  A term indicating shipper's agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented. (See Advisory Capacity.)

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- X -

X HEAVY:  Extra Heavy.

XX HEAVY:  Double Extra Heavy.

X STRONG:  Extra Strong.

XX STRONG:  Double Extra Strong.

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- Y -

Y/A (York-Antwerp Rules):  A code of rules adopted by an international convention in 1890, amended in 1924 and again in 1950, for the purpose of establishing a uniform basis for adjusting general average. Certain nationalities decline to observe some of the rules adopted. U.S. shipping interests generally abide by general rule "F" and numbered rules 1 to 15 and 17 to 22, inclusive, and specifically set this forth in a bill of lading clause.

Yard (Freight): A system of tracks within a certain area used for making up trains, storing cars, placing cars to be loaded or unloaded, etc.

Yarding-in-Transit: Unloading, storing, sorting, etc., of forest products in transit.

Yield:  Revenue, not necessarily profitable, per unit of traffic. 

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Zones (Express): Districts of the United States used for the pur­pose of making express rates, commonly known as "blocks."

Zones (Parcel Post): Districts of the United States used for the purpose of making parcel post rates.

Zones (Time): Districts of the United States used for time ­making purposes, called the Eastern, Central, Mountain and Pacific zones.

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